One thing I that like about the Android App security model is that for a given app, it presents the permissions to the user and the user has to accept them. This is good because the user has control over the software it runs, and is an invaluable tool to be able to use an App without granting it too much access without having to renounce to use it altogether.
Fortunately, the Linux world is a much more friendly environment in terms of malicious software. A big reason for this, is the fact that software is audited and curated by distro package maintainers. I recommend this interesting post on the subject.
Even the best written software can contain vulnerabilities that can be exploited. With the advent of container technologies, such as docker, flatpak or LXC, many have suggested to use them to isolate software from the rest of the system and in doing so mitigate the harm of possible breaches.
By sandboxing software this way, you get some more control over what it is capable of doing, effectively getting closer to the Android security model.