Linux Capabilities Guide



Traditional UNIX implementations distinguish between two categories of processes: privileged and unprivileged. Privileged processes bypass all kernel permission checks, while unprivileged processes are subject to full permission checking based on effective user and group ids (UID/GID), and supplementary group list.

With the introduction of capabilities in Linux kernel 2.2, this has changed. Capabilities (POSIX 1003.1e) are designed to split up the root privilege into a set of distinct privileges which can be independently enabled or disabled. These are used to restrict what a process running as root can do in the system. For instance, it is possible to deny filesystem mount operations, deny kernel module loading, prevent packet spoofing by denying access to raw sockets, deny altering attributes in the file system.

In this article we describe the Linux capabilities feature of Firejail security sandbox. Firejail allows the user to start programs with a specified set of capabilities. The set is applied to all processes running inside the sandbox, thus restricting what processes can do, and somehow reducing the attack surface of the kernel.


Building a Whitelist Capabilities Set

We start with a simple nginx web server example, and we use –caps.keep option to configure the allowed set of capabilities for the server processes. The set is expressed as a comma-separated list of names. For a list of all capabilities available on your system run man 7 capabilities or firejail –debug-caps:

$ firejail --debug-caps
0 - chown
1 - dac_override
2 - dac_read_search
3 - fowner
4 - fsetid
5 - kill
6 - setgid
7 - setuid
8 - setpcap

For our nginx server we can tell off the bat that we need at least the following: CAP_SETUID, CAP_SETGID and CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE. We need the first two because the server changes the user and group ids of the working processes from root to a generic unprivileged user. We need CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE to bind to TCP port 80. We start the sandbox with this whitelist, and add more capabilities as required. First try:

(started as root)
# firejail --caps.keep=setgid,setuid,net_bind_service /etc/init.d/nginx start
Reading profile /etc/firejail/server.profile
Reading profile /etc/firejail/

** Note: you can use --noprofile to disable server.profile **

Parent pid 6943, child pid 6944
The new log directory is /proc/6944/root/var/log
Child process initialized
Starting nginx: nginx: the configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf syntax is ok
nginx: [emerg] chown("/var/lib/nginx/body", 33) failed (1: Operation not permitted)
nginx: configuration file /etc/nginx/nginx.conf test failed

parent is shutting down, bye...

The server tries to change the ownership of /var/lib/nginx/body, and failing to do so, shuts down. We need to add CAP_CHOWN to our whitelist:

# firejail --caps.keep=setgid,setuid,net_bind_service,chown /etc/init.d/nginx start
Reading profile /etc/firejail/server.profile
Reading profile /etc/firejail/

** Note: you can use --noprofile to disable server.profile **

Parent pid 6953, child pid 6954
The new log directory is /proc/6954/root/var/log
Child process initialized
Starting nginx: nginx.

With this modification, the server is running. The same way we can build capabilities list for all regular servers we use everyday.


Common Servers

These are whitelist examples for some common servers. For increased security, we also enable the default seccomp filter:

(nginx web server)
# firejail --caps.keep=chown,net_bind_service,setgid,setuid --seccomp /etc/init.d/nginx start

(apache web server)
# firejail --caps.keep=chown,sys_resource,net_bind_service,setuid,setgid --seccomp /etc/init.d/apache2 start

(net-snmp server)
# firejail --caps.keep=net_bind_service,setuid,setgid --seccomp /etc/init.d/snmpd start
# firejail --caps.keep=net_bind_service,setuid,setgid --seccomp /usr/sbin/snmptrapd start

(ISC DHCP server)
# firejail --caps.keep=net_bind_service,net_raw --seccomp /etc/init.d/isc-dhcp-server start

Notice how ISC DHCP server doesn’t require CAP_SETUID and CAP_SETGID, and it doesn’t drop root privileges. The server runs strictly as root. In this case capabilities and/or seccomp are the only solutions to restrict the server.


Unprivileged Programs

No capabilities are needed for running unprivileged user programs. Full permission checking is in effect inside the kernel for these processes. However, an attacker getting control of a user process can rise the process privileges by running setuid (SUID) programs or by exploiting the kernel directly. Once the process becomes root, it has all capabilities available to root user.

Firejail mitigates this case by dropping all capabilities from the inheritable capabilities set in profile files:

$ cat /etc/firejail/firefox.profile
# Firejail profile for Mozilla Firefox (Iceweasel in Debian)
noblacklist ${HOME}/.mozilla
include /etc/firejail/
include /etc/firejail/
include /etc/firejail/
include /etc/firejail/
caps.drop all
protocol unix,inet,inet6,netlink



Linux capabilities are a simple, yet very effective method to restrict processes running as root. Firejail security sandbox can apply the same whitelist or blacklist filter to all processes in the sandbox.

Building whitelist filters is easy, usually based on errors reported as the program starts. There are about 35 capabilities available in the later Linux kernels, most servers need only a few of them. On kernels 3.5 or newer capabilities are used in conjunction with seccomp filters for increased security.


10 thoughts on “Linux Capabilities Guide

  1. Laurent

    Hi netblue
    I have a server running under debian 8 with nginx and xinetd superserver for ssh and ftp if requested.
    I tried to modify the nginx script /etc/init.d/nginx by including the firejail command but it seems to block the other services. It works because my website was available in my local network but it was impossible to launch the other services (ssh or ftp).
    How can i firejail nginx automatically when i restart my server without blocking the other processes (ssh and ftp) ?
    To resolve the issue, i directly connected to my server with a keyboard but the terminal wasn’t available > i needed to restart the debian in the recovery mode to get an available terminal

    In fact, i don’t know when to start the nginx server with the firejail command in the starting process of my server : Do i have to modify the implementation of firejail in the script or do i have to postpone the start of nginx server at the end of the process by changing the name of the script (S02nginx > S99nginx ?)
    Thanks for your help !


    1. netblue30 Post author

      I think the easiest way is to start it from /etc/rc.local. This is the last script run by the init system when the box comes up. Add a line like “firejail [options] /etc/init.d/nginx start” in that file.


      1. Laurent

        Hi netblue,
        Thanks for your help, it works fine but the firejail process is not at the root. Firejail depends of the “startpar” process. Is it a security problem ?
        Thank you for firejail 🙂


  2. Nofiltr

    Hey there, I’m trying to get NGINX 1.12.2 with Modsecurity and Apparmor up and running.
    But if I start it with the following command:
    # firejail –apparmor –caps.keep=chown,net_bind_service,setgid,setuid,dac_override –noprofile –seccomp nginx

    It keeps spawning endless children and the CPU goes to 100%.

    I uploaded the strace output to pastebin:

    With the Apparmor-Profile alone everything is working, i tried it also with and without –noprofile.

    Got no clue, you? ;-(

    Thanks in advance?


  3. BMrz

    At the first thank you very match for your work. Firejail is great as sandboxing program especially for firefox. I was always uneasy about firefox ability to leave behind a zombie processes with unclosed connections after closing up the main window. So I installed firejail along with firetools.
    As I have said it work great. But I have found out that firejail was blocking my clam antivirus (clamscan command) even in root mode. When I had looked in the config of firejail for clamav it occur to be several leveled and a bit complicated. Just firejail (without firetools) don’t has such problems.
    I just want to ask: why was idea about sandboxing antivirus even in root mode there at the firs place?



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