man firejail

FIREJAIL(1)                    firejail man page                   FIREJAIL(1)

NAME
       Firejail - Linux namespaces sandbox program

SYNOPSIS
       Start a sandbox:

              firejail [OPTIONS] [program and arguments]

       Start an AppImage program:

              firejail [OPTIONS] --appimage [appimage-file and arguments]

       File transfer from an existing sandbox

              firejail {--ls | --get | --put | --cat} dir_or_filename

       Network traffic shaping for an existing sandbox:

              firejail --bandwidth={name|pid} bandwidth-command

       Monitoring:

              firejail {--list | --netstats | --top | --tree}

       Miscellaneous:

              firejail  {-? | --debug-caps | --debug-errnos | --debug-syscalls
              | --debug-syscalls32 | --debug-protocols | --help | --version}

DESCRIPTION
       Firejail is a SUID sandbox program that reduces the  risk  of  security
       breaches  by  restricting the running environment of untrusted applica‐
       tions using Linux namespaces, seccomp-bpf and Linux  capabilities.   It
       allows a process and all its descendants to have their own private view
       of the globally shared kernel resources, such  as  the  network  stack,
       process table, mount table.  Firejail can work in a SELinux or AppArmor
       environment, and it is integrated with Linux Control Groups.

       Written in C with virtually no dependencies, the software runs  on  any
       Linux  computer with a 3.x kernel version or newer.  It can sandbox any
       type of processes: servers, graphical applications, and even user login
       sessions.

       Firejail  allows the user to manage application security using security
       profiles.  Each profile defines a set of permissions for a specific ap‐
       plication or group of applications. The software includes security pro‐
       files for a number of more common Linux programs, such as Mozilla Fire‐
       fox, Chromium, VLC, Transmission etc.

       Alternative  sandbox technologies like snap (https://snapcraft.io/) and
       flatpak (https://flatpak.org/) are  not  supported.  Snap  and  flatpak
       packages  have their own native management tools and will not work when
       sandboxed with Firejail.

USAGE
       Without any options, the sandbox consists of a filesystem  build  in  a
       new  mount  namespace, and new PID and UTS namespaces. IPC, network and
       user namespaces can be added using the command line  options.  The  de‐
       fault Firejail filesystem is based on the host filesystem with the main
       system directories mounted read-only. These directories are /etc, /var,
       /usr,  /bin,  /sbin,  /lib,  /lib32, /libx32 and /lib64. Only /home and
       /tmp are writable.

       Upon execution Firejail first looks in ~/.config/firejail/ for  a  pro‐
       file  and if it doesn't find one, it looks in /etc/firejail/.  For pro‐
       file   resolution   detail    see    https://github.com/netblue30/fire‐
       jail/wiki/Creating-Profiles#locations-and-types.    If  an  appropriate
       profile is not found, Firejail will use a default profile.  The default
       profile is quite restrictive. In case the application doesn't work, use
       --noprofile option to disable it. For more information, please see  SE‐
       CURITY PROFILES section below.

       If  a  program  argument  is  not  specified, Firejail starts /bin/bash
       shell.  Examples:

       $ firejail [OPTIONS]                # starting a /bin/bash shell

       $ firejail [OPTIONS] firefox        # starting Mozilla Firefox

       # sudo firejail [OPTIONS] /etc/init.d/nginx start

OPTIONS
       --     Signal the end of options and disables further  option  process‐
              ing.

       --allow-debuggers
              Allow  tools  such  as  strace  and  gdb  inside  the sandbox by
              whitelisting system calls ptrace and process_vm_readv. This  op‐
              tion  is  only  available  when  running on Linux kernels 4.8 or
              newer - a kernel bug in ptrace system call allows a full  bypass
              of the seccomp filter.

              Example:
              $   firejail    --allow-debuggers  --profile=/etc/firejail/fire‐
              fox.profile strace -f firefox

       --allusers
              All directories under /home are visible inside the  sandbox.  By
              default, only current user home directory is visible.

              Example:
              $ firejail --allusers

       --apparmor
              Enable  AppArmor  confinement.  For more information, please see
              APPARMOR section below.

       --apparmor.print=name|pid
              Print the AppArmor confinement status for the sandbox identified
              by name or by PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --apparmor.print=browser
              5074:netblue:/usr/bin/firejail /usr/bin/firefox-esr
                AppArmor: firejail-default enforce

       --appimage
              Sandbox  an AppImage (https://appimage.org/) application. If the
              sandbox is started as a regular user, nonewprivs and  a  default
              capabilities  filter  are  enabled.  private-bin and private-lib
              are disabled by default when running appimages.

              Example:
              $ firejail --appimage krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage
              $ firejail --appimage --private krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage
              #ifdef  HAVE_X11  $   firejail   --appimage   --net=none   --x11
              krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage

       --audit
              Audit the sandbox, see AUDIT section for more details.

       --audit=test-program
              Audit the sandbox, see AUDIT section for more details.

       --bandwidth=name|pid
              Set  bandwidth limits for the sandbox identified by name or PID,
              see TRAFFIC SHAPING section for more details.

       --bind=filename1,filename2
              Mount-bind filename1 on top of filename2. This  option  is  only
              available when running as root.

              Example:
              # firejail --bind=/config/etc/passwd,/etc/passwd

       --blacklist=dirname_or_filename
              Blacklist  directory  or  file.  File globbing is supported, see
              FILE GLOBBING section for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --blacklist=/sbin --blacklist=/usr/sbin
              $ firejail --blacklist=~/.mozilla
              $ firejail "--blacklist=/home/username/My Virtual Machines"
              $ firejail --blacklist=/home/username/My\ Virtual\ Machines

       --build
              The command builds a whitelisted profile. The profile is printed
              on the screen. If /usr/bin/strace is installed on the system, it
              also builds a whitelisted seccomp profile. The program is run in
              a  very  relaxed sandbox, with only --caps.drop=all and --nonew‐
              privs. Programs that raise user privileges are not supported  in
              order  to  allow  strace  to  run.  Chromium  and Chromium-based
              browsers will not work.

              Example:
              $ firejail --build vlc ~/Videos/test.mp4

       --build=profile-file
              The command builds a whitelisted profile, and saves it  in  pro‐
              file-file.  If  /usr/bin/strace  is  installed on the system, it
              also builds a whitelisted seccomp profile. The program is run in
              a  very  relaxed sandbox, with only --caps.drop=all and --nonew‐
              privs. Programs that raise user privileges are not supported  in
              order  to  allow  strace  to  run.  Chromium  and Chromium-based
              browsers will not work.

              Example:
              $ firejail --build=vlc.profile vlc ~/Videos/test.mp4

       -c     Login shell compatibility option. This option is use by some lo‐
              gin  programs when executing the login shell, such as when fire‐
              jail is used as a restricted login shell. It currently does  not
              change the execution of firejail.

       --caps Linux  capabilities is a kernel feature designed to split up the
              root privilege into a set of distinct privileges.  These  privi‐
              leges can be enabled or disabled independently, thus restricting
              what a process running as root can do in the system.

              By default root programs  run  with  all  capabilities  enabled.
              --caps  option disables the following capabilities: CAP_SYS_MOD‐
              ULE, CAP_SYS_RAWIO, CAP_SYS_BOOT, CAP_SYS_NICE, CAP_SYS_TTY_CON‐
              FIG,  CAP_SYSLOG,  CAP_MKNOD,  CAP_SYS_ADMIN.  The filter is ap‐
              plied to all processes started in the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --caps /etc/init.d/nginx start

       --caps.drop=all
              Drop all capabilities for the processes running in the  sandbox.
              This option is recommended for running GUI programs or any other
              program that doesn't require root privileges. It is a  must-have
              option  for sandboxing untrusted programs installed from unoffi‐
              cial sources - such as games, Java programs, etc.

              Example:
              $ firejail --caps.drop=all warzone2100

       --caps.drop=capability,capability,capability
              Define a custom blacklist Linux capabilities filter.

              Example:
              $ firejail --caps.drop=net_broadcast,net_admin,net_raw

       --caps.keep=capability,capability,capability
              Define a custom whitelist Linux capabilities filter.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --caps.keep=chown,net_bind_service,setgid,\  se‐
              tuid /etc/init.d/nginx start

       --caps.print=name|pid
              Print  the  caps filter for the sandbox identified by name or by
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --caps.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue::firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --caps.print=3272

       --cat=name|pid filename
              Print content of file from sandbox container, see FILE  TRANSFER
              section for more details.

       --cgroup=tasks-file
              Place  the sandbox in the specified control group. tasks-file is
              the full path of cgroup tasks file.

              Example:
              # firejail --cgroup=/sys/fs/cgroup/g1/tasks

       --chroot=dirname
              Chroot the sandbox into a root filesystem.  Unlike  the  regular
              filesystem  container,  the system directories are mounted read-
              write. If the sandbox is started as a regular  user,  nonewprivs
              and a default capabilities filter are enabled.

              Example:
              $ firejail --chroot=/media/ubuntu warzone2100

       --cpu=cpu-number,cpu-number,cpu-number
              Set CPU affinity.

              Example:
              $ firejail --cpu=0,1 handbrake

       --cpu.print=name|pid
              Print  the CPU cores in use by the sandbox identified by name or
              by PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --cpu.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue::firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --cpu.print=3272

       --dbus-log=file
              Specify the location for the DBus log file.

              The log file contains events for both  the  system  and  session
              buses  if  both  of the --dbus-sysem.log and --dbus-user.log op‐
              tions are specified. If no log file  path  is  given,  logs  are
              written to the standard output instead.

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-system=filter --dbus-system.log \
              --dbus-log=dbus.txt

       --dbus-system=filter|none
              Set system DBus sandboxing policy.

              The  filter  policy  enables the system DBus filter. This option
              requires installing the xdg-dbus-proxy utility. Permissions  for
              well-known  can  be  specified  with  the --dbus-system.talk and
              --dbus-system.own options.

              The none policy disables access to the system DBus.

              Only the regular system DBus UNIX socket is handled by this  op‐
              tion. To disable the abstract sockets (and force applications to
              use the filtered UNIX socket) you would need to  request  a  new
              network  namespace using --net command. Another option is to re‐
              move unix from the --protocol set.

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-system=none

       --dbus-system.broadcast=name=[member][@path]
              Allows  the  application  to  receive  broadcast  signals   from
              theindicated  interface  member at the indicated object path ex‐
              posed by the indicated bus name on the system  DBus.   The  name
              may have a .* suffix to match all names underneath it, including
              itself.  The interface member may have a .* to match all members
              of  an interface, or be * to match all interfaces.  The path may
              have a /* suffix to indicate all objects underneath it,  includ‐
              ing  itself.   Omitting  the interface member or the object path
              will match all members and object paths, respectively.

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-system=filter --dbus-system.broadcast=\
              org.freedesktop.Notifications=\
              org.freedesktop.Notifications.*@/org/freedesktop/Notifications

       --dbus-system.call=name=[member][@path]
              Allows the application to call the indicated interface member at
              the  indicated  object path exposed by the indicated bus name on
              the system DBus.  The name may have a .*  suffix  to  match  all
              names underneath it, including itself.  The interface member may
              have a .* to match all members of an interface, or be * to match
              all  interfaces.   The path may have a /* suffix to indicate all
              objects underneath it, including itself.  Omitting the interface
              member  or  the  object  path  will match all members and object
              paths, respectively.

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-system=filter --dbus-system.call=\
              org.freedesktop.Notifications=\
              org.freedesktop.Notifications.*@/org/freedesktop/Notifications

       --dbus-system.log
              Turn on DBus logging for the system DBus. This  option  requires
              --dbus-system=log.

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-system=filter --dbus-system.log

       --dbus-system.own=name
              Allows  the  application to own the specified well-known name on
              the system DBus.  The name may have a .*  suffix  to  match  all
              names  underneath it, including itself (e.g. "foo.bar.*" matches
              "foo.bar", "foo.bar.baz" and "foo.bar.baz.quux", but  not  "foo‐
              bar").

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-system=filter --dbus-system.own=\
              org.gnome.ghex.*

       --dbus-system.see=name
              Allows  the  application  to  see, but not talk to the specified
              well-known name on the system DBus.  The name may have a .* suf‐
              fix  to  match  all  names underneath it, including itself (e.g.
              "foo.bar.*"     matches     "foo.bar",     "foo.bar.baz"     and
              "foo.bar.baz.quux", but not "foobar").

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-system=filter --dbus-system.see=\
              org.freedesktop.Notifications

       --dbus-system.talk=name
              Allows  the application to talk to the specified well-known name
              on the system DBus.  The name may have a .* suffix to match  all
              names  underneath it, including itself (e.g. "foo.bar.*" matches
              "foo.bar", "foo.bar.baz" and "foo.bar.baz.quux", but  not  "foo‐
              bar").

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-system=filter --dbus-system.talk=\
              org.freedesktop.Notifications

       --dbus-user=filter|none
              Set session DBus sandboxing policy.

              The  filter  policy enables the session DBus filter. This option
              requires installing the xdg-dbus-proxy utility. Permissions  for
              well-known  names  can  be  added  with the --dbus-user.talk and
              --dbus-user.own options.

              The none policy disables access to the session DBus.

              Only the regular session DBus UNIX socket is handled by this op‐
              tion. To disable the abstract sockets (and force applications to
              use the filtered UNIX socket) you would need to  request  a  new
              network  namespace using --net command. Another option is to re‐
              move unix from the --protocol set.

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-user=none

       --dbus-user.broadcast=name=[member][@path]
              Allows  the  application  to  receive  broadcast  signals   from
              theindicated  interface  member at the indicated object path ex‐
              posed by the indicated bus name on the session DBus.   The  name
              may have a .* suffix to match all names underneath it, including
              itself.  The interface member may have a .* to match all members
              of  an interface, or be * to match all interfaces.  The path may
              have a /* suffix to indicate all objects underneath it,  includ‐
              ing  itself.   Omitting  the interface member or the object path
              will match all members and object paths, respectively.

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-user=filter --dbus-user.broadcast=\
              org.freedesktop.Notifications=\
              org.freedesktop.Notifications.*@/org/freedesktop/Notifications

       --dbus-user.call=name=[member][@path]
              Allows the application to call the indicated interface member at
              the  indicated  object path exposed by the indicated bus name on
              the session DBus.  The name may have a .* suffix  to  match  all
              names underneath it, including itself.  The interface member may
              have a .* to match all members of an interface, or be * to match
              all  interfaces.   The path may have a /* suffix to indicate all
              objects underneath it, including itself.  Omitting the interface
              member  or  the  object  path  will match all members and object
              paths, respectively.

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-user=filter --dbus-user.call=\
              org.freedesktop.Notifications=\
              org.freedesktop.Notifications.*@/org/freedesktop/Notifications

       --dbus-user.log
              Turn on DBus logging for the session DBus. This option  requires
              --dbus-user=log.

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-user=filter --dbus-user.log

       --dbus-user.own=name
              Allows  the  application to own the specified well-known name on
              the session DBus.  The name may have a .* suffix  to  match  all
              names  underneath it, including itself (e.g. "foo.bar.*" matches
              "foo.bar", "foo.bar.baz" and "foo.bar.baz.quux", but  not  "foo‐
              bar").

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-user=filter --dbus-user.own=org.gnome.ghex.*

       --dbus-user.talk=name
              Allows  the application to talk to the specified well-known name
              on the session DBus.  The name may have a .* suffix to match all
              names  underneath it, including itself (e.g. "foo.bar.*" matches
              "foo.bar", "foo.bar.baz" and "foo.bar.baz.quux", but  not  "foo‐
              bar").

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-user=filter --dbus-user.talk=\
              org.freedesktop.Notifications

       --dbus-user.see=name
              Allows  the  application  to  see, but not talk to the specified
              well-known name on the session DBus.  The name  may  have  a  .*
              suffix  to match all names underneath it, including itself (e.g.
              "foo.bar.*"     matches     "foo.bar",     "foo.bar.baz"     and
              "foo.bar.baz.quux", but not "foobar").

              Example:
              $ firejail --dbus-user=filter --dbus-user.see=\
              org.freedesktop.Notifications

       --debug
              Print debug messages.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug firefox

       --debug-blacklists
              Debug blacklisting.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-blacklists firefox

       --debug-caps
              Print  all recognized capabilities in the current Firejail soft‐
              ware build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-caps

       --debug-errnos
              Print all recognized error numbers in the current Firejail soft‐
              ware build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-errnos

       --debug-private-lib
              Debug messages for --private-lib option.

       --debug-protocols
              Print  all recognized protocols in the current Firejail software
              build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-protocols

       --debug-syscalls
              Print all recognized system calls in the current Firejail  soft‐
              ware build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-syscalls

       --debug-syscalls32
              Print all recognized 32 bit system calls in the current Firejail
              software build and exit.

       --debug-whitelists
              Debug whitelisting.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-whitelists firefox

       --defaultgw=address
              Use this address as default gateway in  the  new  network  name‐
              space.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --defaultgw=10.10.20.1 firefox

       --disable-mnt
              Blacklist /mnt, /media, /run/mount and /run/media access.

              Example:
              $ firejail --disable-mnt firefox

       --deterministic-exit-code
              Always exit firejail with the first child's exit status. The de‐
              fault behavior is to use the exit status of the final  child  to
              exit, which can be nondeterministic.

       --dns=address
              Set a DNS server for the sandbox. Up to three DNS servers can be
              defined.  Use this option if you don't trust the  DNS  setup  on
              your network.

              Example:
              $ firejail --dns=8.8.8.8 --dns=8.8.4.4 firefox

              Note: this feature is not supported on systemd-resolved setups.

       --dns.print=name|pid
              Print  DNS  configuration for a sandbox identified by name or by
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --dns.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue::firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --dns.print=3272

       --env=name=value
              Set environment variable in the new sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --env=LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/opt/test/lib

       --fs.print=name|pid
              Print the filesystem log for the sandbox identified by  name  or
              by PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --fs.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue::firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --fs.print=3272

       --get=name|pid filename
              Get a file from sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for
              more details.

       -?, --help
              Print options end exit.

       --hostname=name
              Set sandbox hostname.

              Example:
              $ firejail --hostname=officepc firefox

       --hosts-file=file
              Use file as /etc/hosts.

              Example:
              $ firejail --hosts-file=~/myhosts firefox

       --ignore=command
              Ignore command in profile file.

              Example:
              $ firejail --ignore=shell --ignore=seccomp firefox
              $ firejail --ignore="net eth0" firefox

       --interface=interface
              Move interface in a new network namespace. Up to  four  --inter‐
              face  options can be specified.  Note: wlan devices are not sup‐
              ported for this option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --interface=eth1 --interface=eth0.vlan100

       --ip=address
              Assign IP addresses to the last network interface defined  by  a
              --net option. A default gateway is assigned by default.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=10.10.20.56 firefox

       --ip=none
              No IP address and no default gateway are configured for the last
              interface defined by a --net option. Use this option in case you
              intend to start an external DHCP client in the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=none

              If  the  corresponding interface doesn't have an IP address con‐
              figured, this option is enabled by default.

       --ip=dhcp
              Acquire an IP address and default gateway for the last interface
              defined  by  a  --net option, as well as set the DNS servers ac‐
              cording to the DHCP response.   This  option  requires  the  ISC
              dhclient DHCP client to be installed and will start it automati‐
              cally inside the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=br0 --ip=dhcp

              This option should not be used in conjunction with the --dns op‐
              tion  if the DHCP server is set to configure DNS servers for the
              clients, because the manually  specified  DNS  servers  will  be
              overwritten.

              The DHCP client will NOT release the DHCP lease when the sandbox
              terminates.  If your DHCP server requires leases to  be  explic‐
              itly  released, consider running a DHCP client and releasing the
              lease manually in conjunction with the --net=none option.

       --ip6=address
              Assign IPv6 addresses to the last network interface defined by a
              --net option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip6=2001:0db8:0:f101::1/64 firefox

              Note:  you don't need this option if you obtain your ip6 address
              from router via SLAAC (your ip6 address and default  route  will
              be configured by kernel automatically).

       --ip6=dhcp
              Acquire  an IPv6 address and default gateway for the last inter‐
              face defined by a --net option, as well as set the  DNS  servers
              according  to  the  DHCP response.  This option requires the ISC
              dhclient DHCP client to be installed and will start it automati‐
              cally inside the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=br0 --ip6=dhcp

              This option should not be used in conjunction with the --dns op‐
              tion if the DHCP server is set to configure DNS servers for  the
              clients,  because  the  manually  specified  DNS servers will be
              overwritten.

              The DHCP client will NOT release the DHCP lease when the sandbox
              terminates.   If  your DHCP server requires leases to be explic‐
              itly released, consider running a DHCP client and releasing  the
              lease manually.

       --iprange=address,address
              Assign  an  IP address in the provided range to the last network
              interface defined by a --net option. A default  gateway  is  as‐
              signed by default.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --iprange=192.168.1.100,192.168.1.150

       --ipc-namespace
              Enable  a new IPC namespace if the sandbox was started as a reg‐
              ular user. IPC namespace is enabled  by  default  for  sandboxes
              started as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --ipc-namespace firefox

       --join=name|pid
              Join  the  sandbox  identified  by  name or by PID. By default a
              /bin/bash shell is started after joining the sandbox.  If a pro‐
              gram  is specified, the program is run in the sandbox. If --join
              command is issued as a regular user, all  security  filters  are
              configured  for  the new process the same they are configured in
              the sandbox.  If --join command is issued as root, the  security
              filters,  cgroups and cpus configurations are not applied to the
              process joining the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --join=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue::firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --join=3272

       --join-filesystem=name|pid
              Join the mount namespace of the sandbox identified  by  name  or
              PID.  By  default a /bin/bash shell is started after joining the
              sandbox.  If a program is specified, the program is run  in  the
              sandbox.  This command is available only to root user.  Security
              filters, cgroups and cpus configurations are not applied to  the
              process joining the sandbox.

       --join-network=name|pid
              Join the network namespace of the sandbox identified by name. By
              default a /bin/bash shell is started after joining the  sandbox.
              If  a  program  is specified, the program is run in the sandbox.
              This command is available only to root user.  Security  filters,
              cgroups  and  cpus configurations are not applied to the process
              joining the sandbox. Example:

              # start firefox
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --name=browser firefox &

              # change netfilter configuration
              $ sudo firejail --join-network=browser bash -c  "cat  /etc/fire‐
              jail/nolocal.net | /sbin/iptables-restore"

              # verify netfilter configuration
              $ sudo firejail --join-network=browser /sbin/iptables -vL

              # verify  IP addresses
              $ sudo firejail --join-network=browser ip addr
              Switching  to pid 1932, the first child process inside the sand‐
              box
              1: lo:  mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state  UN‐
              KNOWN group default
                  link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
                  inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
                  inet6 ::1/128 scope host
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
              2:  eth0-1931:   mtu 1500 qdisc
              noqueue state UNKNOWN group default
                  link/ether 76:58:14:42:78:e4 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
                  inet  192.168.1.158/24  brd   192.168.1.255   scope   global
              eth0-1931
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
                  inet6 fe80::7458:14ff:fe42:78e4/64 scope link
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

       --join-or-start=name
              Join the sandbox identified by name or start a new one.  Same as
              "firejail --join=name" if sandbox with  specified  name  exists,
              otherwise same as "firejail --name=name ..."
              Note  that in contrary to other join options there is respective
              profile option.

       --keep-dev-shm
              /dev/shm directory is untouched (even with --private-dev)

              Example:
              $ firejail --keep-dev-shm --private-dev

       --keep-var-tmp
              /var/tmp directory is untouched.

              Example:
              $ firejail --keep-var-tmp

       --list List all sandboxes, see MONITORING section for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              7015:netblue:browser:firejail firefox
              7056:netblue:torrent:firejail --net=eth0 transmission-gtk
              7064:netblue::firejail --noroot xterm

       --ls=name|pid dir_or_filename
              List files in sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER  section  for
              more details.

       --mac=address
              Assign  MAC addresses to the last network interface defined by a
              --net option. This option is not supported for  wireless  inter‐
              faces.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --mac=00:11:22:33:44:55 firefox

       --machine-id
              Spoof  id  number  in  /etc/machine-id file - a new random id is
              generated inside the sandbox.  Note that this breaks audio  sup‐
              port. Enable it when sound is not required.

              Example:
              $ firejail --machine-id

       --memory-deny-write-execute
              Install a seccomp filter to block attempts to create memory map‐
              pings that are both writable and executable, to change  mappings
              to  be  executable,  or  to create executable shared memory. The
              filter  examines  the  arguments  of  mmap,   mmap2,   mprotect,
              pkey_mprotect,  memfd_create  and shmat system calls and returns
              error EPERM to the process (or kills it or log the attempt,  see
              --seccomp-error-action below) if necessary.

              Note:  shmat  is  not implemented as a system call on some plat‐
              forms including i386, and it cannot be handled by seccomp-bpf.

       --mtu=number
              Assign a MTU value to the last network interface  defined  by  a
              --net option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --mtu=1492

       --name=name
              Set  sandbox  name.  Several options, such as --join and --shut‐
              down, can use this name to identify a sandbox.

              In case the name supplied by the user is already in use  by  an‐
              other  sandbox,  Firejail  will assign a new name as "name-PID",
              where PID is the process ID of the sandbox.  This  functionality
              can  be  disabled  at  run time in /etc/firejail/firejail.config
              file, by setting "name-change" flag to "no".

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=browser firefox &
              $ firejail --name=browser --private firefox --no-remote &
              $ firejail --list
              1198:netblue:browser:firejail --name=browser firefox
              1312:netblue:browser-1312:firejail   --name=browser    --private
              firefox --no-remote

       --net=bridge_interface
              Enable a new network namespace and connect it to this bridge in‐
              terface.  Unless specified with option --ip and --defaultgw,  an
              IP  address and a default gateway will be assigned automatically
              to the sandbox. The IP address is verified using ARP before  as‐
              signment.  The  address  configured  as  default  gateway is the
              bridge device IP address. Up to four --net options can be speci‐
              fied.

              Example:
              $ sudo brctl addbr br0
              $ sudo ifconfig br0 10.10.20.1/24
              $ sudo brctl addbr br1
              $ sudo ifconfig br1 10.10.30.1/24
              $ firejail --net=br0 --net=br1

       --net=ethernet_interface|wireless_interface
              Enable  a  new network namespace and connect it to this ethernet
              interface using the standard Linux macvlan|ipvaln driver. Unless
              specified  with option --ip and --defaultgw, an IP address and a
              default gateway will be assigned automatically to  the  sandbox.
              The  IP address is verified using ARP before assignment. The ad‐
              dress configured as default gateway is the  default  gateway  of
              the  host.  Up  to four --net options can be specified.  Support
              for ipvlan driver was introduced in Linux kernel 3.19.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=192.168.1.80 --dns=8.8.8.8 firefox
              $ firejail --net=wlan0 firefox

       --net=none
              Enable a new, unconnected network namespace. The only  interface
              available in the new namespace is a new loopback interface (lo).
              Use this option to deny network access to  programs  that  don't
              really need network access.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=none vlc

              Note:  --net=none  can  crash the application on some platforms.
              In these cases, it can be replaced with --protocol=unix.

       --net=tap_interface
              Enable a new network namespace and connect it to  this  ethernet
              tap  interface  using  the standard Linux macvlan driver. If the
              tap interface is not configured, the sandbox  will  not  try  to
              configure  the  interface  inside the sandbox.  Please use --ip,
              --netmask and --defaultgw to specify the configuration.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=tap0  --ip=10.10.20.80  --netmask=255.255.255.0
              --defaultgw=10.10.20.1 firefox

       --net.print=name|pid
              If  a  new network namespace is enabled, print network interface
              configuration for the sandbox specified by name or PID. Example:

              $ firejail --net.print=browser
              Switching to pid 1853, the first child process inside the  sand‐
              box
              Interface  MAC               IP            Mask        Status
              lo                           127.0.0.1     255.0.0.0     UP
              eth0-1852  5e:fb:8e:27:29:26 192.168.1.186 255.255.255.0 UP

       --netfilter
              Enable  a default firewall if a new network namespace is created
              inside the sandbox.  This option has no effect for sandboxes us‐
              ing the system network namespace.

              The  default  firewall is optimized for regular desktop applica‐
              tions. No incoming connections are accepted:

              *filter
              :INPUT DROP [0:0]
              :FORWARD DROP [0:0]
              :OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
              -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
              # allow ping
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type destination-unreachable -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type time-exceeded -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT
              # drop STUN (WebRTC) requests
              -A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 3478 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 3479 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 3478 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 3479 -j DROP
              COMMIT

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --netfilter firefox

       --netfilter=filename
              Enable the firewall specified by filename if a new network name‐
              space  is created inside the sandbox.  This option has no effect
              for sandboxes using the system network namespace.

              Please use the regular iptables-save/iptables-restore format for
              the  filter  file.  The  following  examples  are  available  in
              /etc/firejail directory:

              webserver.net is a webserver firewall that allows access only to
              TCP ports 80 and 443.  Example:

              $ firejail --netfilter=/etc/firejail/webserver.net --net=eth0 \
              /etc/init.d/apache2 start

              nolocal.net  is a desktop client firewall that disable access to
              local network. Example:

              $ firejail --netfilter=/etc/firejail/nolocal.net \
              --net=eth0 firefox

       --netfilter=filename,arg1,arg2,arg3 ...
              This is the template version of  the  previous  command.  $ARG1,
              $ARG2,  $ARG3 ... in the firewall script are replaced with arg1,
              arg2, arg3 ... passed on the command line. Up  to  16  arguments
              are supported.  Example:

              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=192.168.1.105 \
              --netfilter=/etc/firejail/tcpserver.net,5001 server-program

       --netfilter.print=name|pid
              Print the firewall installed in the sandbox specified by name or
              PID. Example:

              $ firejail --name=browser --net=eth0 --netfilter firefox &
              $ firejail --netfilter.print=browser

       --netfilter6=filename
              Enable the IPv6 firewall specified by filename if a new  network
              namespace is created inside the sandbox.  This option has no ef‐
              fect for sandboxes using the system network  namespace.   Please
              use  the  regular  iptables-save/iptables-restore format for the
              filter file.

       --netfilter6.print=name|pid
              Print the IPv6 firewall installed in the  sandbox  specified  by
              name or PID. Example:

              $ firejail --name=browser --net=eth0 --netfilter firefox &
              $ firejail --netfilter6.print=browser

       --netmask=address
              Use  this  option when you want to assign an IP address in a new
              namespace and the parent interface specified  by  --net  is  not
              configured.  An  IP  address  and a default gateway address also
              have to be added. By default the new namespace  interface  comes
              without IP address and default gateway configured. Example:

              $ sudo /sbin/brctl addbr br0
              $ sudo /sbin/ifconfig br0 up
              $   firejail   --ip=10.10.20.67   --netmask=255.255.255.0  --de‐
              faultgw=10.10.20.1

       --netns=name
              Run the program in a named, persistent network namespace.  These
              can be created and configured using "ip netns".

       --netstats
              Monitor network namespace statistics, see MONITORING section for
              more details.

              Example:

              $ firejail --netstats
              PID  User    RX(KB/s) TX(KB/s) Command
              1294 netblue 53.355   1.473    firejail --net=eth0 firefox
              7383 netblue 9.045    0.112    firejail --net=eth0 transmission

       --nice=value
              Set nice value for all processes  running  inside  the  sandbox.
              Only root may specify a negative value.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nice=2 firefox

       --no3d Disable 3D hardware acceleration.

              Example:
              $ firejail --no3d firefox

       --noautopulse
              Disable  automatic ~/.config/pulse init, for complex setups such
              as remote pulse servers or non-standard socket paths.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noautopulse firefox

       --noblacklist=dirname_or_filename
              Disable blacklist for this directory or file.

              Example:
              $ firejail
              $ nc dict.org 2628
              bash: /bin/nc: Permission denied
              $ exit

              $ firejail --noblacklist=/bin/nc
              $ nc dict.org 2628
              220 pan.alephnull.com dictd 1.12.1/rf on Linux 3.14-1-amd64

       --nodbus (deprecated)
              Disable D-Bus access (both system and session buses). Equivalent
              to --dbus-system=none --dbus-user=none.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nodbus --net=none

       --nodvd
              Disable DVD and audio CD devices.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nodvd

       --noexec=dirname_or_filename
              Remount  directory  or file noexec, nodev and nosuid. File glob‐
              bing is supported, see FILE GLOBBING section for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noexec=/tmp

              /etc and /var are noexec by default if the sandbox  was  started
              as a regular user.

       --nogroups
              Disable supplementary groups. Without this option, supplementary
              groups are enabled for the user starting the sandbox.  For  root
              user supplementary groups are always disabled.

              Note:  By  default  all regular user groups are removed with the
              exception of the current user. This can be changed  using  --al‐
              lusers command option.

              Example:
              $ id
              uid=1000(netblue)       gid=1000(netblue)       groups=1000(net‐
              blue),24(cdrom),25(floppy),27(sudo),29(audio)
              $ firejail --nogroups
              Parent pid 8704, child pid 8705
              Child process initialized
              $ id
              uid=1000(netblue) gid=1000(netblue) groups=1000(netblue)
              $

       --nonewprivs
              Sets the NO_NEW_PRIVS prctl.  This ensures that child  processes
              cannot  acquire  new privileges using execve(2);  in particular,
              this means that calling a suid binary (or one with file capabil‐
              ities)  does not result in an increase of privilege. This option
              is enabled by default if seccomp filter is activated.

       --noprofile
              Do not use a security profile.

              Example:
              $ firejail
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/default.profile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

              $ firejail --noprofile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]  #if HAVE_USERNS

       --noroot
              Install a user namespace with a single user - the current  user.
              root  user  does not exist in the new namespace. This option re‐
              quires a Linux kernel version 3.8 or newer. The  option  is  not
              supported  for  --chroot  and  --overlay  configurations, or for
              sandboxes started as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noroot
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              $ ping google.com
              ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted
              $

       --nosound
              Disable sound system.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nosound firefox

       --notv Disable DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) TV devices.

              Example:
              $ firejail --notv vlc

       --nou2f
              Disable U2F devices.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nou2f

       --novideo
              Disable video devices.

       --nowhitelist=dirname_or_filename
              Disable whitelist for this directory or file.

       --output=logfile
              stdout logging and log rotation. Copy  stdout  to  logfile,  and
              keep  the  size of the file under 500KB using log rotation. Five
              files with prefixes .1 to .5 are used in rotation.

              Example:
              $ firejail --output=sandboxlog /bin/bash
              [...]
              $ ls -l sandboxlog*
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 333890 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.1
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.2
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.3
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.4
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.5

       --output-stderr=logfile
              Similar to --output, but stderr is also stored.

       --overlay
              Mount a filesystem overlay on top  of  the  current  filesystem.
              Unlike  the regular filesystem container, the system directories
              are mounted read-write. All filesystem modifications go into the
              overlay.  Directories /run, /tmp and /dev are not covered by the
              overlay. The overlay is stored in  $HOME/.firejail/  direc‐
              tory.   If  the sandbox is started as a regular user, nonewprivs
              and a default capabilities filter are enabled.

              OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to
              work.   OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel ver‐
              sion 3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay firefox

       --overlay-clean
              Clean all overlays stored in $HOME/.firejail directory.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-clean

       --overlay-named=name
              Mount a filesystem overlay on top  of  the  current  filesystem.
              Unlike  the regular filesystem container, the system directories
              are mounted read-write. All filesystem modifications go into the
              overlay.  Directories /run, /tmp and /dev are not covered by the
              overlay. The overlay is stored in $HOME/.firejail/  direc‐
              tory.   The  created overlay can be reused between multiple ses‐
              sions.  If the sandbox is started as a regular user,  nonewprivs
              and a default capabilities filter are enabled.

              OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to
              work.  OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel  ver‐
              sion 3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-named=jail1 firefox

       --overlay-tmpfs
              Mount a filesystem overlay on top of the current filesystem. All
              filesystem modifications  are  discarded  when  the  sandbox  is
              closed.  Directories  /run, /tmp and /dev are not covered by the
              overlay.  If the sandbox is started as a  regular  user,  nonew‐
              privs and a default capabilities filter are enabled.

              OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to
              work.  OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel  ver‐
              sion 3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-tmpfs firefox

       --private
              Mount new /root and /home/user directories in temporary filesys‐
              tems. All  modifications  are  discarded  when  the  sandbox  is
              closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private firefox

       --private=directory
              Use  directory  as user home.  --private and --private=directory
              cannot be used together.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private=/home/netblue/firefox-home firefox

       --private-bin=file,file
              Build a new /bin in a temporary filesystem, and  copy  the  pro‐
              grams  in  the list.  The files in the list must be expressed as
              relative to the /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin,  /usr/sbin,  or  /usr/lo‐
              cal/bin  directories.  If no listed files are found, /bin direc‐
              tory will be empty.  The same  directory  is  also  bind-mounted
              over /sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin and /usr/local/bin.  All modifi‐
              cations are discarded when the sandbox is closed. File  globbing
              is supported, see FILE GLOBBING section for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-bin=bash,sed,ls,cat
              Parent pid 20841, child pid 20842
              Child process initialized
              $ ls /bin
              bash  cat  ls  sed

       --private-cache
              Mount  an empty temporary filesystem on top of the .cache direc‐
              tory in user home. All  modifications  are  discarded  when  the
              sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-cache openbox

       --private-cwd
              Set  working  directory  inside  jail to the home directory, and
              failing that, the root directory.
              Does not impact working directory of profile include paths.

              Example:
              $ pwd
              /tmp
              $ firejail --private-cwd
              $ pwd
              /home/user

       --private-cwd=directory
              Set working directory inside the jail.
              Does not impact working directory of profile include paths.

              Example:
              $ pwd
              /tmp
              $ firejail --private-cwd=/opt
              $ pwd
              /opt

       --private-dev
              Create a new /dev directory. Only disc, dri, dvb, hidraw,  null,
              full,  zero,  tty,  pts, ptmx, random, snd, urandom, video, log,
              shm and usb devices are  available.   Use  the  options  --no3d,
              --nodvd, --nosound, --notv, --nou2f and --novideo for additional
              restrictions.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-dev
              Parent pid 9887, child pid 9888
              Child process initialized
              $ ls /dev
              cdrom  cdrw  dri  dvd  dvdrw  full  log  null  ptmx  pts  random
              shm  snd  sr0  tty  urandom  zero
              $

       --private-etc=file,directory
              Build  a  new /etc in a temporary filesystem, and copy the files
              and directories in the list.  The files and directories  in  the
              list must be expressed as relative to the /etc directory.  If no
              listed file is found, /etc directory will be empty.  All modifi‐
              cations are discarded when the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-etc=group,hostname,localtime, \
              nsswitch.conf,passwd,resolv.conf,default/motd-news

       --private-home=file,directory
              Build  a  new  user home in a temporary filesystem, and copy the
              files and directories in the list in the new  home.   The  files
              and directories in the list must be expressed as relative to the
              current user's home directory.  All modifications are  discarded
              when the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-home=.mozilla firefox

       --private-lib=file,directory
              This  feature  is  currently under heavy development. Only amd64
              platforms are supported at this moment.  The files and  directo‐
              ries  in  the list must be expressed as relative to the /lib di‐
              rectory.  The idea is  to  build  a  new  /lib  in  a  temporary
              filesystem, with only the library files necessary to run the ap‐
              plication.  It could be as simple as:

              $ firejail --private-lib galculator

              but it gets complicated really fast:

              $   firejail    --private-lib=x86_64-linux-gnu/xed,x86_64-linux-
              gnu/gdk-pixbuf-2.0,libenchant.so.1,librsvg-2.so.2 xed

              The feature is integrated with --private-bin:

              $ firejail --private-lib --private-bin=bash,ls,ps
              $ ls /lib
              ld-linux-x86-64.so.2  libgpg-error.so.0  libprocps.so.6  libsys‐
              temd.so.0
              libc.so.6 liblz4.so.1 libpthread.so.0 libtinfo.so.5
              libdl.so.2 liblzma.so.5 librt.so.1 x86_64-linux-gnu
              libgcrypt.so.20 libpcre.so.3 libselinux.so.1
              $ ps
               PID TTY          TIME CMD
                  1 pts/0    00:00:00 firejail
                 45 pts/0    00:00:00 bash
                 48 pts/0    00:00:00 ps
              $

       --private-opt=file,directory
              Build a new /opt in a temporary filesystem, and copy  the  files
              and  directories  in the list.  The files and directories in the
              list must be expressed as relative to the /opt directory.  If no
              listed file is found, /opt directory will be empty.  All modifi‐
              cations are discarded when the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-opt=firefox /opt/firefox/firefox

       --private-srv=file,directory
              Build a new /srv in a temporary filesystem, and copy  the  files
              and  directories  in the list.  The files and directories in the
              list must be expressed as relative to the /srv directory.  If no
              listed file is found, /srv directory will be empty.  All modifi‐
              cations are discarded when the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              # firejail --private-srv=www /etc/init.d/apache2 start

       --private-tmp
              Mount an empty temporary filesystem on  top  of  /tmp  directory
              whitelisting X11 and PulseAudio sockets.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-tmp
              $ ls -al /tmp
              drwxrwxrwt  4 nobody nogroup   80 Apr 30 11:46 .
              drwxr-xr-x 30 nobody nogroup 4096 Apr 26 22:18 ..
              drwx------   2  nobody  nogroup  4096  Apr  30  10:52 pulse-PKd‐
              htXMmr18n
              drwxrwxrwt  2 nobody nogroup 4096 Apr 30 10:52 .X11-unix

       --profile=filename_or_profilename
              Load a custom security profile from filename. For  filename  use
              an  absolute  path  or a path relative to the current path.  For
              more information, see SECURITY PROFILES section below.

              Example:
              $ firejail --profile=myprofile

       --profile.print=name|pid
              Print the name of the profile file for the sandbox identified by
              name or or PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --profile.print=browser
              /etc/firejail/firefox.profile

       --protocol=protocol,protocol,protocol
              Enable  protocol  filter.  The  filter  is  based on seccomp and
              checks the first argument to  socket  system  call.   Recognized
              values:  unix,  inet,  inet6, netlink and packet. This option is
              not supported for i386 architecture.

              Example:
              $ firejail --protocol=unix,inet,inet6 firefox

       --protocol.print=name|pid
              Print the protocol filter for the sandbox identified by name  or
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mybrowser firefox &
              $ firejail --protocol.print=mybrowser
              unix,inet,inet6,netlink

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue::firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --protocol.print=3272
              unix,inet,inet6,netlink

       --put=name|pid src-filename dest-filename
              Put  a  file in sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for
              more details.

       --quiet
              Turn off Firejail's output.

              The same effect can be obtained by setting an environment  vari‐
              able FIREJAIL_QUIET to yes.

       --read-only=dirname_or_filename
              Set directory or file read-only. File globbing is supported, see
              FILE GLOBBING section for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --read-only=~/.mozilla firefox

       --read-write=dirname_or_filename
              Set directory or file read-write. Only files or directories  be‐
              longing to the current user are allowed for this operation. File
              globbing is supported, see FILE GLOBBING section  for  more  de‐
              tails.  Example:

              $ mkdir ~/test
              $ touch ~/test/a
              $ firejail --read-only=~/test --read-write=~/test/a

       --rlimit-as=number
              Set  the  maximum  size of the process's virtual memory (address
              space) in bytes.

       --rlimit-cpu=number
              Set the maximum limit, in seconds, for the amount  of  CPU  time
              each  sandboxed process  can consume. When the limit is reached,
              the processes are killed.

              The CPU limit is a limit on  CPU  seconds  rather  than  elapsed
              time. CPU seconds is basically how many seconds the CPU has been
              in use and does not necessarily directly relate to  the  elapsed
              time.  Linux  kernel keeps track of CPU seconds for each process
              independently.

       --rlimit-fsize=number
              Set the maximum file size that can be created by a process.

       --rlimit-nofile=number
              Set the maximum number of files that can be opened by a process.

       --rlimit-nproc=number
              Set the maximum number of processes that can be created for  the
              real user ID of the calling process.

       --rlimit-sigpending=number
              Set the maximum number of pending signals for a process.

       --rmenv=name
              Remove environment variable in the new sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --rmenv=DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS

       --scan ARP-scan all the networks from inside a network namespace.  This
              makes it possible to detect macvlan kernel device  drivers  run‐
              ning on the current host.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --scan

       --seccomp
              Enable  seccomp filter and blacklist the syscalls in the default
              list, which is  @default-nodebuggers unless  allow-debuggers  is
              specified, then it is @default.

              To help creating useful seccomp filters more easily, the follow‐
              ing system call groups are  defined:  @aio,  @basic-io,  @chown,
              @clock,  @cpu-emulation, @debug, @default, @default-nodebuggers,
              @default-keep, @file-system, @io-event,  @ipc,  @keyring,  @mem‐
              lock,  @module,  @mount,  @network-io,  @obsolete,  @privileged,
              @process, @raw-io, @reboot, @resources, @setuid,  @swap,  @sync,
              @system-service  and  @timer.  More information about groups can
              be found in /usr/share/doc/firejail/syscalls.txt

              In addition, a system call can be specified by  its  number  in‐
              stead  of name with prefix $, so for example $165 would be equal
              to mount on i386.  Exceptions can be allowed with prefix !.

              System architecture is strictly  imposed  only  if  flag  --sec‐
              comp.block-secondary  is used. The filter is applied at run time
              only if the correct architecture was detected. For the  case  of
              I386  and AMD64 both 32-bit and 64-bit filters are installed. On
              a 64 bit architecture, an additional filter for  32  bit  system
              calls can be installed with --seccomp.32.

              Firejail  will  print seccomp violations to the audit log if the
              kernel was compiled with audit support (CONFIG_AUDIT flag).

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp

       --seccomp=syscall,@group,!syscall2
              Enable seccomp filter, whitelist "syscall2", but  blacklist  the
              default list and the syscalls or syscall groups specified by the
              command.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp=utime,utimensat,utimes firefox
              $ firejail --seccomp=@clock,mkdir,unlinkat transmission-gtk

              Instead of dropping the syscall by returning EPERM, another  er‐
              ror  number can be returned using syscall:errno syntax. This can
              be also  changed  globally  with  --seccomp-error-action  or  in
              /etc/firejail/firejail.config  file.   The  process  can also be
              killed by using syscall:kill  syntax,  or  the  attempt  may  be
              logged with syscall:log.

              Example: $ firejail --seccomp=unlinkat:ENOENT,utimensat,utimes
              Parent pid 10662, child pid 10663
              Child process initialized
              $ touch testfile
              $ rm testfile
              rm: cannot remove `testfile': Operation not permitted

              If the blocked system calls would also block Firejail from oper‐
              ating, they are handled by adding a preloaded library which per‐
              forms  seccomp system calls later. However, this is incompatible
              with 32 bit seccomp filters.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noprofile --shell=none --seccomp=execve bash
              Parent pid 32751, child pid 32752
              Post-exec seccomp protector enabled
              list in: execve,  check  list:  @default-keep  prelist:  (null),
              postlist: execve
              Child process initialized in 46.44 ms
              $ ls
              Bad system call

       --seccomp.block-secondary
              Enable  seccomp  filter  and filter system call architectures so
              that only the native architecture is allowed.  For  example,  on
              amd64, i386 and x32 system calls are blocked as well as changing
              the execution domain with personality(2) system call.

       --seccomp.drop=syscall,@group
              Enable seccomp filter, and blacklist the syscalls or the syscall
              groups  specified  by  the command. On a 64 bit architecture, an
              additional filter for 32 bit system calls can be installed  with
              --seccomp.32.drop.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp.drop=utime,utimensat,utimes,@clock

              Instead  of dropping the syscall by returning EPERM, another er‐
              ror number can be returned using syscall:errno syntax. This  can
              be  also  changed  globally  with  --seccomp-error-action  or in
              /etc/firejail/firejail.config file.  The  process  can  also  be
              killed  by  using  syscall:kill  syntax,  or  the attempt may be
              logged with syscall:log.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp.drop=unlinkat:ENOENT,utimensat,utimes
              Parent pid 10662, child pid 10663
              Child process initialized
              $ touch testfile
              $ rm testfile
              rm: cannot remove `testfile': Operation not permitted

       --seccomp.keep=syscall,@group,!syscall2
              Enable seccomp filter, blacklist  all  syscall  not  listed  and
              "syscall2".   The  system  calls  needed by Firejail (group @de‐
              fault-keep: prctl, execve) are handled with the preload library.
              On a 64 bit architecture, an additional filter for 32 bit system
              calls can be installed with --seccomp.32.keep.

              Example:
              $ firejail --shell=none --seccomp.keep=poll,select,[...]  trans‐
              mission-gtk

       --seccomp.print=name|pid
              Print  the  seccomp filter for the sandbox identified by name or
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=browser firefox &
              $ firejail --seccomp.print=browser
               line  OP JT JF    K
              =================================
               0000: 20 00 00 00000004   ld  data.architecture
               0001: 15 01 00 c000003e   jeq ARCH_64 0003 (false 0002)
               0002: 06 00 00 7fff0000   ret ALLOW
               0003: 20 00 00 00000000   ld  data.syscall-number
               0004: 35 01 00 40000000   jge X32_ABI true:0006 (false 0005)
               0005: 35 01 00 00000000   jge read 0007 (false 0006)
               0006: 06 00 00 00050001   ret ERRNO(1)
               0007: 15 41 00 0000009a   jeq modify_ldt 0049 (false 0008)
               0008: 15 40 00 000000d4   jeq lookup_dcookie 0049 (false 0009)
               0009: 15 3f 00 0000012a   jeq perf_event_open 0049 (false 000a)
               000a: 15 3e 00 00000137    jeq  process_vm_writev  0049  (false
              000b)
               000b: 15 3d 00 0000009c   jeq _sysctl 0049 (false 000c)
               000c: 15 3c 00 000000b7   jeq afs_syscall 0049 (false 000d)
               000d: 15 3b 00 000000ae   jeq create_module 0049 (false 000e)
               000e: 15 3a 00 000000b1   jeq get_kernel_syms 0049 (false 000f)
               000f: 15 39 00 000000b5   jeq getpmsg 0049 (false 0010)
               0010: 15 38 00 000000b6   jeq putpmsg 0049 (false 0011)
               0011: 15 37 00 000000b2   jeq query_module 0049 (false 0012)
               0012: 15 36 00 000000b9   jeq security 0049 (false 0013)
               0013: 15 35 00 0000008b   jeq sysfs 0049 (false 0014)
               0014: 15 34 00 000000b8   jeq tuxcall 0049 (false 0015)
               0015: 15 33 00 00000086   jeq uselib 0049 (false 0016)
               0016: 15 32 00 00000088   jeq ustat 0049 (false 0017)
               0017: 15 31 00 000000ec   jeq vserver 0049 (false 0018)
               0018: 15 30 00 0000009f   jeq adjtimex 0049 (false 0019)
               0019: 15 2f 00 00000131   jeq clock_adjtime 0049 (false 001a)
               001a: 15 2e 00 000000e3   jeq clock_settime 0049 (false 001b)
               001b: 15 2d 00 000000a4   jeq settimeofday 0049 (false 001c)
               001c: 15 2c 00 000000b0   jeq delete_module 0049 (false 001d)
               001d: 15 2b 00 00000139   jeq finit_module 0049 (false 001e)
               001e: 15 2a 00 000000af   jeq init_module 0049 (false 001f)
               001f: 15 29 00 000000ad   jeq ioperm 0049 (false 0020)
               0020: 15 28 00 000000ac   jeq iopl 0049 (false 0021)
               0021: 15 27 00 000000f6   jeq kexec_load 0049 (false 0022)
               0022: 15 26 00 00000140   jeq kexec_file_load 0049 (false 0023)
               0023: 15 25 00 000000a9   jeq reboot 0049 (false 0024)
               0024: 15 24 00 000000a7   jeq swapon 0049 (false 0025)
               0025: 15 23 00 000000a8   jeq swapoff 0049 (false 0026)
               0026: 15 22 00 000000a3   jeq acct 0049 (false 0027)
               0027: 15 21 00 00000141   jeq bpf 0049 (false 0028)
               0028: 15 20 00 000000a1   jeq chroot 0049 (false 0029)
               0029: 15 1f 00 000000a5   jeq mount 0049 (false 002a)
               002a: 15 1e 00 000000b4   jeq nfsservctl 0049 (false 002b)
               002b: 15 1d 00 0000009b   jeq pivot_root 0049 (false 002c)
               002c: 15 1c 00 000000ab   jeq setdomainname 0049 (false 002d)
               002d: 15 1b 00 000000aa   jeq sethostname 0049 (false 002e)
               002e: 15 1a 00 000000a6   jeq umount2 0049 (false 002f)
               002f: 15 19 00 00000099   jeq vhangup 0049 (false 0030)
               0030: 15 18 00 000000ee   jeq set_mempolicy 0049 (false 0031)
               0031: 15 17 00 00000100   jeq migrate_pages 0049 (false 0032)
               0032: 15 16 00 00000117   jeq move_pages 0049 (false 0033)
               0033: 15 15 00 000000ed   jeq mbind 0049 (false 0034)
               0034:  15  14  00  00000130   jeq open_by_handle_at 0049 (false
              0035)
               0035: 15 13 00 0000012f    jeq  name_to_handle_at  0049  (false
              0036)
               0036: 15 12 00 000000fb   jeq ioprio_set 0049 (false 0037)
               0037: 15 11 00 00000067   jeq syslog 0049 (false 0038)
               0038: 15 10 00 0000012c   jeq fanotify_init 0049 (false 0039)
               0039: 15 0f 00 00000138   jeq kcmp 0049 (false 003a)
               003a: 15 0e 00 000000f8   jeq add_key 0049 (false 003b)
               003b: 15 0d 00 000000f9   jeq request_key 0049 (false 003c)
               003c: 15 0c 00 000000fa   jeq keyctl 0049 (false 003d)
               003d: 15 0b 00 000000ce   jeq io_setup 0049 (false 003e)
               003e: 15 0a 00 000000cf   jeq io_destroy 0049 (false 003f)
               003f: 15 09 00 000000d0   jeq io_getevents 0049 (false 0040)
               0040: 15 08 00 000000d1   jeq io_submit 0049 (false 0041)
               0041: 15 07 00 000000d2   jeq io_cancel 0049 (false 0042)
               0042:  15  06  00  000000d8    jeq remap_file_pages 0049 (false
              0043)
               0043: 15 05 00 00000116   jeq vmsplice 0049 (false 0044)
               0044: 15 04 00 00000087   jeq personality 0049 (false 0045)
               0045: 15 03 00 00000143   jeq userfaultfd 0049 (false 0046)
               0046: 15 02 00 00000065   jeq ptrace 0049 (false 0047)
               0047: 15 01 00  00000136    jeq  process_vm_readv  0049  (false
              0048)
               0048: 06 00 00 7fff0000   ret ALLOW
               0049: 06 00 01 00000000   ret KILL
              $

       --seccomp-error-action= kill | ERRNO
              By  default,  if  a  seccomp  filter  blocks  a system call, the
              process gets EPERM as the error. With --seccomp-error-action=er‐
              ror, another error number can be returned, for example ENOSYS or
              EACCES. The process can also be killed (like in versions <0.9.63
              of Firejail) by using --seccomp-error-action=kill syntax, or the
              attempt  may  be  logged  with  --seccomp-error-action=log.  Not
              killing  the  process  weakens  Firejail slightly when trying to
              contain intrusion, but it may also allow tighter filters if  the
              only alternative is to allow a system call.

       --shell=none
              Run the program directly, without a user shell.

              Example:
              $ firejail --shell=none script.sh

       --shell=program
              Set  default  user  shell. Use this shell to run the application
              using -c shell option.  For example "firejail  --shell=/bin/dash
              firefox"  will  start Mozilla Firefox as "/bin/dash -c firefox".
              By default Bash shell (/bin/bash) is used.

              Example: $firejail --shell=/bin/dash script.sh

       --shutdown=name|pid
              Shutdown the sandbox identified by name or PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --shutdown=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue::firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --shutdown=3272

       --timeout=hh:mm:ss
              Kill the sandbox automatically after the time has  elapsed.  The
              time is specified in hours/minutes/seconds format.

              $ firejail --timeout=01:30:00 firefox

       --tmpfs=dirname
              Mount a writable tmpfs filesystem on directory dirname. This op‐
              tion is available only when running the sandbox as  root.   File
              globbing  is  supported,  see FILE GLOBBING section for more de‐
              tails.

              Example:
              # firejail --tmpfs=/var

       --top  Monitor the most CPU-intensive sandboxes, see MONITORING section
              for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --top

       --trace[=filename]
              Trace  open,  access  and  connect  system calls. If filename is
              specified, log trace output to filename, otherwise log  to  con‐
              sole.

              Example:
              $ firejail --trace wget -q www.debian.org
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/wget.profile
              3:wget:fopen64 /etc/wgetrc:0x5c8e8ce6c0
              3:wget:fopen /etc/hosts:0x5c8e8cfb70
              3:wget:socket AF_INET SOCK_DGRAM IPPROTO_IP:3
              3:wget:connect 3 8.8.8.8 port 53:0
              3:wget:socket AF_INET SOCK_STREAM IPPROTO_IP:3
              3:wget:connect 3 130.89.148.14 port 80:0
              3:wget:fopen64 index.html:0x5c8e8d1a60

              parent is shutting down, bye...

       --tracelog
              This  option enables auditing blacklisted files and directories.
              A message is sent to syslog in case the file or the directory is
              accessed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --tracelog firefox

              Sample messages:
              $ sudo tail -f /var/log/syslog
              [...]
              Dec  3 11:43:25 debian firejail[70]: blacklist violation - sand‐
              box 26370, exe firefox, syscall open64, path /etc/shadow
              Dec  3 11:46:17 debian firejail[70]: blacklist violation - sand‐
              box 26370, exe firefox, syscall opendir, path /boot
              [...]

       --tree Print  a tree of all sandboxed processes, see MONITORING section
              for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --tree
              11903:netblue:firejail iceweasel
                11904:netblue:iceweasel
                  11957:netblue:/usr/lib/iceweasel/plugin-container
              11969:netblue:firejail --net=eth0 transmission-gtk
                11970:netblue:transmission-gtk

       --tunnel[=devname]
              Connect the sandbox to a network overlay/VPN tunnel  created  by
              firetunnel  utility. This options tries first the client side of
              the tunnel. If this fails, it tries the server side. If multiple
              tunnels  are  active,  please  specify  the  tunnel device using
              --tunnel=devname.

              The available tunnel devices are listed in  /etc/firetunnel  di‐
              rectory,  one file for each device.  The files are regular fire‐
              jail profile files containing the network configuration, and are
              created  and  managed  by firetunnel utility.  By default ftc is
              the client-side device and fts is the  server-side  device.  For
              more information please see man 1 firetunnel.

              Example:
              $ firejail --tunnel firefox

       --version
              Print program version/compile time support and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --version
              firejail version 0.9.27

              Compile time support:
                  - AppArmor support is enabled
                  - AppImage support is enabled
                  - chroot support is enabled
                  - file and directory whitelisting support is enabled
                  - file transfer support is enabled
                  - firetunnel support is enabled
                  - networking support is enabled
                  - overlayfs support is enabled
                  - private-home support is enabled
                  - seccomp-bpf support is enabled
                  - user namespace support is enabled
                  - X11 sandboxing support is enabled

       --veth-name=name
              Use  this  name  for  the  interface connected to the bridge for
              --net=bridge_interface commands, instead of the default one.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=br0 --veth-name=if0

       --whitelist=dirname_or_filename
              Whitelist directory or file. A temporary file system is  mounted
              on the top directory, and the whitelisted files are mount-binded
              inside. Modifications to whitelisted files are  persistent,  ev‐
              erything  else  is discarded when the sandbox is closed. The top
              directory could be user home, /dev, /etc,  /media,  /mnt,  /opt,
              /run/user/$UID, /srv, /sys/module, /tmp, /usr/share and /var.

              Symbolic  link  handling:  with the exception of user home, both
              the link and the real file should be in the same top  directory.
              For  user  home, both the link and the real file should be owned
              by the user.

              File globbing is supported, see FILE GLOBBING section  for  more
              details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noprofile --whitelist=~/.mozilla
              $ firejail --whitelist=/tmp/.X11-unix --whitelist=/dev/null
              $ firejail "--whitelist=/home/username/My Virtual Machines"
              $ firejail --whitelist=~/work* --whitelist=/var/backups*

       --writable-etc
              Mount /etc directory read-write.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-etc

       --writable-run-user
              Disable  the  default blacklisting of /run/user/$UID/systemd and
              /run/user/$UID/gnupg.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-run-user

       --writable-var
              Mount /var directory read-write.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-var

       --writable-var-log
              Use the real /var/log directory, not  a  clone.  By  default,  a
              tmpfs  is  mounted  on top of /var/log directory, and a skeleton
              filesystem is created based on the original /var/log.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-var-log

              #ifdef HAVE_X11

       --x11  Sandbox the application using Xpra, Xephyr, Xvfb or  Xorg  secu‐
              rity extension.  The sandbox will prevent screenshot and keylog‐
              ger applications  started  inside  the  sandbox  from  accessing
              clients  running  outside  the  sandbox.  Firejail will try Xpra
              first, and if Xpra is not installed on the system, it  will  try
              to  find Xephyr.  If all fails, Firejail will not attempt to use
              Xvfb or X11 security extension.

              Xpra, Xephyr and Xvfb modes require a network  namespace  to  be
              instantiated  in  order  to disable X11 abstract Unix socket. If
              this is not possible, the user can disable the  abstract  socket
              by  adding  "-nolisten  local"  on  Xorg  command line at system
              level.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11 --net=eth0 firefox

       --x11=none
              Blacklist /tmp/.X11-unix directory, ${HOME}/.Xauthority and  the
              file  specified  in  ${XAUTHORITY} environment variable.  Remove
              DISPLAY and XAUTHORITY environment variables.  Stop  with  error
              message if X11 abstract socket will be accessible in jail.

       --x11=xephyr
              Start Xephyr and attach the sandbox to this server.  Xephyr is a
              display server implementing the X11 display server protocol.   A
              network  namespace needs to be instantiated in order to deny ac‐
              cess to X11 abstract Unix domain socket.

              Xephyr runs in a window just like any other X11 application. The
              default  window  size  is  800x600.   This  can  be  modified in
              /etc/firejail/firejail.config file.

              The recommended way to use this feature is to run a window  man‐
              ager inside the sandbox.  A security profile for OpenBox is pro‐
              vided.

              Xephyr is developed by Xorg project. On Debian platforms  it  is
              installed  with the command sudo apt-get install xserver-xephyr.
              This feature is not available when running as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11=xephyr --net=eth0 openbox

       --x11=xorg
              Sandbox the application using the untrusted mode implemented  by
              X11  security  extension.   The  extension  is available in Xorg
              package and it is installed by default on most  Linux  distribu‐
              tions.  It  provides support for a simple trusted/untrusted con‐
              nection model. Untrusted clients are restricted in certain  ways
              to  prevent  them from reading window contents of other clients,
              stealing input events, etc.

              The untrusted mode has several limitations.  A  lot  of  regular
              programs   assume  they are a trusted X11 clients and will crash
              or lock up when run in  untrusted  mode.  Chromium  browser  and
              xterm are two examples.  Firefox and transmission-gtk seem to be
              working fine.  A network namespace is not required for this  op‐
              tion.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11=xorg firefox

       --x11=xpra
              Start  Xpra  (https://xpra.org)  and  attach the sandbox to this
              server.  Xpra is a persistent remote display server  and  client
              for  forwarding X11 applications and desktop screens.  A network
              namespace needs to be instantiated in order to  deny  access  to
              X11 abstract Unix domain socket.

              On Debian platforms Xpra is installed with the command sudo apt-
              get install xpra.  This feature is not available when running as
              root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11=xpra --net=eth0 firefox

       --x11=xvfb
              Start  Xvfb  X11  server  and attach the sandbox to this server.
              Xvfb, short for X virtual framebuffer,  performs  all  graphical
              operations  in memory without showing any screen output. Xvfb is
              mainly used for remote access and software testing  on  headless
              servers.

              On Debian platforms Xvfb is installed with the command sudo apt-
              get install xvfb.  This feature is not available when running as
              root.

              Example: remote VNC access

              On  the  server we start a sandbox using Xvfb and openbox window
              manager. The default size of Xvfb screen is 800x600 - it can  be
              changed  in  /etc/firejail/firejail.config  (xvfb-screen).  Some
              sort of networking (--net) is required in order to  isolate  the
              abstract sockets used by other X servers.

              $ firejail --net=none --x11=xvfb openbox

              *** Attaching to Xvfb display 792 ***

              Reading profile /etc/firejail/openbox.profile
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/disable-common.inc
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/disable-common.local
              Parent pid 5400, child pid 5401

              On  the  server  we also start a VNC server and attach it to the
              display handled by our Xvfb server (792).

              $ x11vnc -display :792

              On the client machine we start a VNC viewer and use it  to  con‐
              nect to our server:

              $ vncviewer

       --xephyr-screen=WIDTHxHEIGHT
              Set screen size for --x11=xephyr. The setting will overwrite the
              default set in  /etc/firejail/firejail.config  for  the  current
              sandbox.  Run  xrandr  to get a list of supported resolutions on
              your computer.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --x11=xephyr --xephyr-screen=640x480 fire‐
              fox

APPARMOR
       AppArmor  support is disabled by default at compile time. Use --enable-
       apparmor configuration option to enable it:

              $ ./configure --prefix=/usr --enable-apparmor

       During software install, a generic AppArmor profile file,  firejail-de‐
       fault, is placed in /etc/apparmor.d directory. The local customizations
       must be placed  in  /etc/apparmor.d/local/firejail-local.  The  profile
       needs  to  be loaded into the kernel by reloading apparmor.service, re‐
       booting the system or running the following command as root:

              # apparmor_parser -r /etc/apparmor.d/firejail-default

       The installed profile is supplemental for main firejail  functions  and
       among other things does the following:

              -  Disable ptrace. With ptrace it is possible to inspect and hi‐
              jack running programs. Usually this is needed  only  for  debug‐
              ging.  You  should have no problems running Chromium or Firefox.
              This feature is available only on Ubuntu kernels.

              - Whitelist write access to several files under /run, /proc  and
              /sys.

              - Allow running programs only from well-known system paths, such
              as /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin etc. Those paths are available as read-
              only.  Running  programs and scripts from user home or other di‐
              rectories writable by the user is not allowed.

              - Prevent using non-standard network sockets. Only  unix,  inet,
              inet6, netlink, raw and packet are allowed.

              - Deny access to known sensitive paths like .snapshots.

       To enable AppArmor confinement on top of your current Firejail security
       features, pass --apparmor flag to Firejail command line. You  can  also
       include apparmor command in a Firejail profile file. Example:

              $ firejail --apparmor firefox

AUDIT
       Audit  feature  allows the user to point out gaps in security profiles.
       The implementation replaces the program to be  sandboxed  with  a  test
       program. By default, we use faudit program distributed with Firejail. A
       custom test program can also be supplied by the user. Examples:

       Running the default audit program:
            $ firejail --audit transmission-gtk

       Running a custom audit program:
            $ firejail --audit=~/sandbox-test transmission-gtk

       In the examples above, the sandbox configures transmission-gtk  profile
       and  starts  the test program. The real program, transmission-gtk, will
       not be started.

       You can also audit a specific profile without specifying a program.
            $ firejail --audit --profile=/etc/firejail/zoom.profile

       Limitations: audit feature is not implemented for --x11 commands.

DESKTOP INTEGRATION
       A symbolic link to /usr/bin/firejail under the name of a program,  will
       start  the  program  in  Firejail sandbox.  The symbolic link should be
       placed in the first $PATH position. On most systems, a  good  place  is
       /usr/local/bin directory. Example:

              Make a firefox symlink to /usr/bin/firejail:

              $ sudo ln -s /usr/bin/firejail /usr/local/bin/firefox

              Verify $PATH

              $ which -a firefox
              /usr/local/bin/firefox
              /usr/bin/firefox

              Starting firefox in this moment, automatically invokes “firejail
              firefox”.

       This works for clicking on desktop environment icons,  menus  etc.  Use
       "firejail --tree" to verify the program is sandboxed.

              $ firejail --tree
              1189:netblue:firejail firefox
                1190:netblue:firejail firefox
                  1220:netblue:/bin/sh -c "/usr/lib/firefox/firefox"
                    1221:netblue:/usr/lib/firefox/firefox

       We  provide  a  tool  that  automates  all this integration, please see
       firecfg(1) for more details.

EXAMPLES
       firejail
              Sandbox a regular /bin/bash session.

       firejail firefox
              Start Mozilla Firefox.

       firejail --debug firefox
              Debug Firefox sandbox.

       firejail --private firefox
              Start Firefox with a new, empty home directory.

       firejail --net=none vlc
              Start VLC in an unconnected network namespace.

       firejail --net=eth0 firefox
              Start Firefox in a new network namespace. An IP address  is  as‐
              signed automatically.

       firejail --net=br0 --ip=10.10.20.5 --net=br1 --net=br2
              Start a /bin/bash session in a new network namespace and connect
              it to br0, br1, and br2 host bridge devices.  IP  addresses  are
              assigned  automatically  for the interfaces connected to br1 and
              b2

       firejail --list
              List all sandboxed processes.

FILE GLOBBING
       Globbing is the operation that expands a wildcard pattern into the
              list of pathnames matching the pattern.  This pattern is matched
              at  firejail start, and is NOT UPDATED at runtime.  Files match‐
              ing a blacklist, but created after firejail start will be acces‐
              sible within the jail. Matching is defined by:

              - '?' matches any character
              - '*' matches any string
              - '[' denotes a range of characters

       The globbing feature is implemented using glibc glob command. For
              more information on the wildcard syntax see man 7 glob.

       The following command line options are supported: --blacklist,
              --private-bin, --noexec, --read-only, --read-write, --tmpfs, and
              --whitelist.

       Examples:

              $ firejail --private-bin=sh,bash,python*
              $ firejail --blacklist=~/dir[1234]
              $ firejail --read-only=~/dir[1-4]

FILE TRANSFER
       These features allow the user to inspect the filesystem container of an
       existing  sandbox and transfer files between the container and the host
       filesystem.

       --cat=name|pid filename
              Write content of a container file to standard out. The container
              is specified by name or PID.  If standard out is a terminal, all
              ASCII control characters except new line and horizontal tab  are
              replaced.

       --get=name|pid filename
              Retrieve the container file and store it on the host in the cur‐
              rent working directory.  The container is specified by  name  or
              PID.

       --ls=name|pid dir_or_filename
              List container files. The container is specified by name or PID.

       --put=name|pid src-filename dest-filename
              Put  src-filename in sandbox container.  The container is speci‐
              fied by name or PID.

       Examples:

              $ firejail --name=mybrowser --private firefox

              $ firejail --ls=mybrowser ~/Downloads
              drwxr-xr-x netblue  netblue         4096 .
              drwxr-xr-x netblue  netblue         4096 ..
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue         7847 x11-x305.png
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue         6800 x11-x642.png
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue        34139 xpra-clipboard.png

              $ firejail --get=mybrowser ~/Downloads/xpra-clipboard.png

              $ firejail --put=mybrowser xpra-clipboard.png  ~/Downloads/xpra-
              clipboard.png

              $ firejail --cat=mybrowser ~/.bashrc

MONITORING
       Option  --list  prints  a  list  of  all sandboxes. The format for each
       process entry is as follows:

            PID:USER:Sandbox Name:Command

       Option --tree prints the tree of processes running in the sandbox.  The
       format for each process entry is as follows:

            PID:USER:Sandbox Name:Command

       Option  --top  is  similar  to the UNIX top command, however it applies
       only to sandboxes.

       Option --netstats prints network statistics for  active  sandboxes  in‐
       stalling new network namespaces.

       Listed  below  are the available fields (columns) in alphabetical order
       for --top and --netstats options:

       Command
              Command used to start the sandbox.

       CPU%   CPU usage, the sandbox share of the elapsed CPU time  since  the
              last screen update

       PID    Unique process ID for the task controlling the sandbox.

       Prcs   Number  of  processes running in sandbox, including the control‐
              ling process.

       RES    Resident Memory Size (KiB), sandbox non-swapped physical memory.
              It  is  a sum of the RES values for all processes running in the
              sandbox.

       RX(KB/s)
              Network receive speed.

       Sandbox Name
              The name of the sandbox, if any.

       SHR    Shared Memory Size (KiB), it reflects memory shared  with  other
              processes.  It is a sum of the SHR values for all processes run‐
              ning in the sandbox, including the controlling process.

       TX(KB/s)
              Network transmit speed.

       Uptime Sandbox running time in hours:minutes:seconds format.

       USER   The owner of the sandbox.

RESTRICTED SHELL
       To configure a restricted shell, replace /bin/bash with  /usr/bin/fire‐
       jail in /etc/passwd file for each user that needs to be restricted. Al‐
       ternatively, you can specify /usr/bin/firejail  in adduser command:

       adduser --shell /usr/bin/firejail username

       Additional arguments passed to firejail executable upon login  are  de‐
       clared in /etc/firejail/login.users file.

SECURITY PROFILES
       Several command line options can be passed to the program using profile
       files. Firejail chooses the profile file as follows:

       1. If a profile file is provided by the user  with  --profile=FILE  op‐
       tion,  the  profile  FILE  is loaded. If a profile name is given, it is
       searched for first in the ~/.config/firejail directory and if not found
       then  in   /etc/firejail  directory.  Profile  names do not include the
       .profile suffix. If there is a file with the same  name  as  the  given
       profile  name,  it will be used instead of doing the profile search. To
       force a profile search, prefix the profile name with a colon  (:),  eg.
       --profile=:PROFILE_NAME.  Example:

              $ firejail --profile=/home/netblue/icecat.profile icecat
              Reading profile /home/netblue/icecat.profile
              [...]

              $ firejail --profile=icecat icecat-wrapper.sh
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/icecat.profile
              [...]

       2.  If  a profile file with the same name as the application is present
       in ~/.config/firejail directory or in  /etc/firejail,  the  profile  is
       loaded.  ~/.config/firejail  takes precedence over /etc/firejail. Exam‐
       ple:

              $ firejail icecat
              Command name #icecat#
              Found icecat profile in /home/netblue/.config/firejail directory
              Reading profile /home/netblue/.config/firejail/icecat.profile
              [...]

       3. Use default.profile file if the sandbox  is  started  by  a  regular
       user,  or  server.profile file if the sandbox is started by root. Fire‐
       jail looks for these files in ~/.config/firejail directory, followed by
       /etc/firejail directory.  To disable default profile loading, use --no‐
       profile command option. Example:

              $ firejail
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/default.profile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

              $ firejail --noprofile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

       See man 5 firejail-profile for profile file syntax information.

TRAFFIC SHAPING
       Network bandwidth is an expensive resource shared among  all  sandboxes
       running  on a system.  Traffic shaping allows the user to increase net‐
       work performance by controlling the amount of data that flows into  and
       out of the sandboxes.

       Firejail  implements  a simple rate-limiting shaper based on Linux com‐
       mand tc.  The shaper works at sandbox level, and can be used  only  for
       sandboxes configured with new network namespaces.

       Set rate-limits:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid set network download upload

       Clear rate-limits:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid clear network

       Status:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid status

       where:
            name - sandbox name
            pid - sandbox pid
            network - network interface as used by --net option
            download - download speed in KB/s (kilobyte per second)
            upload - upload speed in KB/s (kilobyte per second)

       Example:
            $ firejail --name=mybrowser --net=eth0 firefox &
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser set eth0 80 20
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser status
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser clear eth0

LICENSE
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published  by  the
       Free  Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your
       option) any later version.

       Homepage: https://firejail.wordpress.com

SEE ALSO
       firemon(1), firecfg(1), firejail-profile(5),  firejail-login(5),  fire‐
       jail-users(5),            ⟨https://github.com/netblue30/firejail/wiki⟩,
       ⟨https://github.com/netblue30/firejail⟩

0.9.64                             Oct 2020                        FIREJAIL(1)


39 thoughts on “man firejail

  1. Chiraag

    I’m having some difficulty in getting mpd to background properly inside firejail. Using “mpd; sleep inf;” worked before, but it’s now responding with “mpd; sleep inf;: command not found”. What is the “official” way to get this working again? Thanks!

    Like

    Reply
  2. GNUser

    nosound option is breaking profiles.
    I tried it in icedove, piding, firefox, and it breaks all of them. if i try to use a profile that has that option it just gives an error in that line. If I do it like “firejail –nosound firefox” however it works flawlessly. I am using 0.9.38

    Any idea?

    Like

    Reply
      1. GNUser

        I expected it to just prevent that specific application from using sound. It is very “anti-feature” this way, since to prevent one application from being exploited and used to spy, we lose sound in all the other apps. Any workaround?

        Like

  3. procoolheat

    When I installed this for use with Chrome it created a profile somewhere for Chrome so it starts with a loaded Chrome cache and some features enabled on Chrome extensions. So I clear the cache and change the extension settings every time I use it firejail google-chrome is how I start it. I’ve even removed it and reinstalled it but the profile is always the same. This is the latest version also. How do I go about deleting this? It’s acting like its in private mode which I thought was deprecated, Help!

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    1. netblue30 Post author

      google-chrome configuration is persistent, and is stored in ~/.config/google-chrome directory. So, if you add a bookmark, next time you start chrome, your bookmark should be there. You can delete the configuration before starting chrome (rm -fr ~/.config/google-chrome). Your Download directory is also persistent.

      If you really want to start every time with a default chrome config, you should run “firejail –private google-chrome”.

      Liked by 1 person

      Reply
  4. Martin

    [quote]
    This works for clicking on desktop environment icons, menus etc. Use
    “firejail –tree” to verify the program is sandboxed.
    [/quote]

    Sadly it’s not working for most applications in Gnome3 in Debian Stretch. Probably because in the *.desktop files there is the full path written.
    Do you know a workaround or you suggest to file a bugreport?

    Like

    Reply
  5. kdemeoz

    Hi. Many thanks for FireJail – it’s an amazing achievement.

    Is there a way for FireJail to sandbox internet-facing programs, whose user-data & config files are NOT stored as conventional in /home, but instead are in separate partition /DATA [albeit symlinked back to /home] ? So far all my tests with combinations of –blacklist & –noblacklist in their launchers [for eg, Thunderbird & Firefox] have failed [& –whitelist can’t be used at all if i understand correctly, given their active directories are not in /home], in that either the programs can’t launch at all [because can’t access their config & data], or they launch but ALL other directories & files in /DATA are exposed to internet. Please?

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      1. kdemeoz

        That’s the unfortunate conclusion i’d come to, but given i am still not very skilled with FJ, i felt it best to ask you. Thank you.

        Like

  6. Pingback: Sandbox your applications with Firejail – Own your bits

  7. Matthew

    Trying to use –private-home with Google Chrome default profile. I am trying to preserve the add-ons and plug-ins from my default Chrome profile. I’ve tried many iterations, including [firejail –private-home=~/.google-chrome/Default google-chrome-stable]

    But Chrome just fails to load when I double-click on it in Firetools.

    I have tried using many directory path options, but to no avail. Someone please help.

    Like

    Reply
    1. netblue30 Post author

      Use –private only if you need a browser reseted to factory defaults, without any plugins and addons.

      By default Firejail will allow you to use all Chrome addons and plugins. The only directories exposed in your home are Downloads and Chrome configuration files.

      I would say just start it as “firejail chrome” and you should be ok. We do this for all browsers.

      Like

      Reply
  8. Matthew

    netblue,

    Thx for the info. Much appreciated. As I have been looking into optimizing the security features of Firejail and found out that –seccomp, –overlay and –overlay-tmpfs do not work with Chrome, I have managed to come up with the following (not sure if I’ve missed anything):

    firejail –caps.drop=all –noroot –allow-private-blacklist –blacklist=/Home/ –read-only=~ google-chrome-stable

    Chrome loads no problem and at least I’ve added some additional security features to further tighten the security of the sandbox.

    I’m currently running Fedora v26 and as it relates to all the command-line parameters that add additional measures of security, It has taken a while to figure out what works with Chrome and what doesn’t.

    That being said, and as others have mentioned previously, thank you for all your hard work (and anyone else who worked on Firejail/Firetools).

    Cheers.

    Like

    Reply
  9. Matthew

    Oops. I apologize for not mentioning this in my response above. My main purpose for implementing Firejail / Firetools is solely to improve upon the overall security of internet browsing sessions. I’m not testing software or writing code. This is just to help prevent virus / malware injection. Thanks again!

    Like

    Reply
    1. netblue30 Post author

      Question: why don’t you use the default profile for Chrome distributed by firejail?

      You’ll find it in /etc/firejail/google-*.,profile. We have profiles for all Chrome variants, including Chromium. All of them are basically the same, with very small differences. Some of features such as seccomp won’t work for Chrome browser because Chrom starts a second sandbox inside firejail sandbox.

      Like

      Reply
  10. Matthew

    Indeed sir.

    I found the /etc/firejail/google*.profile files and performed the steps (as you outlined in the profiles section here on the site) to save a new google-chrome-stable profile in my [/home/.config/firejail] directory and add the nonewprivs and noroot parameters. I also rem’ed out the caps.keep sys_chroot, sys_admin line and added caps.drop all. Now all I have to do is ‘firejail google-chrome-stable.’ I (again) apologize as I don’t really know if the chroot and admin capabilities are needed in Chrome for pure internet browsing. I conducted some on-line research on those capabilities, but couldn’t come up with anything definitive. As you can see, my working knowledge of Linux is not yet up to snuff.

    NetBlue, again my sincere thanks for an awesome program.

    Like

    Reply
  11. Pingback: Sandbox your applications with Firejail – Linux Now

  12. Pingback: Using Firejail to sandbox applications in Linux – Excerpts of the Regginator

  13. Ben

    Hi

    You’ve made a great tool here, and I’m grateful.

    However, I am finding it hard to use. Partly that’s because I am learning about computer science as I go. I’m a noob.

    But partly I am having trouble with the documentation. I find it dense, counter-intuititve and overwhelming. I’m not talking about the content (well, sometimes). Its the structure.

    Case in point: I want to read up how to transfer a file out of sandbox into my host system’s Documents folder. This page has three places at least where “FILE TRANSFER” is located, and I have two options to find them: scrolling, a long way, or; crtl+F in my browser.

    Why don’t those entries link to each other? Or any, between other parts of the page or site.

    FILE TRANSFERS (your caps) is part of a large series of section titles, to which there is no link between them nor a table of contents.

    There isn’t even an anchor so I can bookmark the spot once I’ve found it. [Add in extra time looking fruitlessly for browser extensions that might help].

    Please remember that if you aren’t a commandline guru, you’ve committed to Linux years ago but you’re still figuring out what the hell namespaces are, you don’t have the tacit knowledge that might help you sail through this space. Its called tacit knowledge – enormously valuable, years in the making and possession of it is easily forgotten even by those who have it. I don’t have it.

    You’re basically asking me to trawl through a page of gobbledygook (technical term) for something I don’t really understand, and even forget how to spell between ctrl+Fs.

    Basic structure would give me so much more working memory to the substantive task (i.e. file transfer) rather than document navigation.

    What kills me is that I remember having figured this out six months ago, but I’ve got to do it all over again… I’ve already lost a couple of hours that I don’t have.

    This is a great tool. Can you make it more accessible? I am sure its not just me, but I’m pretty vocal (most else just slink away quietly and frustrated).

    (To put money where my mouth is, I would have time in about 6 weeks to help. I’d have to learn a few things, but I’d be willing).

    Constructively,

    B.

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    Reply
  14. Ben

    Furthermore, I just flat out can’t get the transfer to work.

    First, I do this:

    11:31:25 b:~ $ firemon –list
    3799:b:/usr/bin/firejail /usr/bin/keepass2 /xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
    3821:b:/usr/bin/firejail /usr/bin/firefox
    4632:b:/usr/bin/firejail /usr/bin/VirtualBox
    13497:b:/usr/bin/firejail /usr/bin/google-chrome-stable
    20129:b:firejail –private firefox –private-window –no-remote –no-first-run
    22100:b:/usr/bin/firejail /usr/bin/pluma /home/b/xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

    (edit – multiple x added by me)

    I haven’t named my private firefox session (second from bottom) – I haven’t a clue as to how, and I got lost looking for instructions last time. I start the thing from a desktop launcher for banking, government websites, etc.

    But, the instructions say PID can be used, so

    11:33:36 b:~ $ sudo firejail –ls=20129 ~/Downloads
    drwx—— b b 60 .
    drwx—— b b 220 ..
    -rw-rw-r– b b 13058 Target Document

    So, I want ‘Target Document’.

    11:34:07 b:~ $ firejail –get=20129 ~/Downloads/’Target Document’
    Warning: cannot open source file /home/b/Downloads/Target Document, file not copied

    “WTF…?” I mutter to myself. I recheck instructions. Nope…

    The all-powerful sudo?

    15:32:36 b:~ $ sudo firejail –get=20129 ~/Downloads/’Target Document’
    Warning: cannot open source file /home/b/Downloads/Centrelink Statement, file not copied

    Nope. It took me quite a while before I realised the permissions were probably at the heart of it. However, I can’t figure out how to get into that sandbox to modify permissions, and anyway – why should I, as a user on the host (and as sudo, no less), have to modify rights to copy a file I downloaded? I don’t understand the constraints, but seems weird. (If an attacker is issuing commands from the host terminal, the game is over already, surely?)

    I tried a couple of other tacks

    15:43:07 b:~ $ firejail –chmod=20129 777 ~/Downloads
    Error: invalid –chmod=20129 command line option
    15:44:49 b:~ $ $ firejail –whitelist=~/.mozilla –whitelist=~/Download firefox
    $: command not found

    and even tried the whole command listed in the –ls output as the `name`, but it didn’t work. Read the whole Firefox entry and couldn’t see the solution. Don’t know where to look, and note that a search engine brings up others with transfer problems, but I can’t devine enough to apply fixes to my situation.

    I am absolutely stumped. Please help.

    Like

    Reply
  15. Josh

    I’m writing “./configure –prefix=/usr –enable-apparmor” into the terminal and it’s telling me the file or category can’t be found. Firejail is 100% installed. Am I doing something wrong? 😦

    Linux Mint 19 XFCE.

    Like

    Reply
  16. Matt

    Should mention that firejail uses a temporary bash history file. Useful on it’s own to keep passwords from bash history without tedious cleanup if one forgets or is in a hurry.

    Like

    Reply
  17. Didelon

    Not sure if this is intentional (but undocumented) or a bug: I try to jail an application but still make its config files available to it. The config ist stored in $HOME/.config/xyz so I add ‘–whitelist=~/.config/xyz’. The directory does get added but it belongs to ‘nobody’ and the permissions are 400 which makes it inaccessible. If that is not a bug, what is the proper way to map the config?

    Like

    Reply
    1. Didelon

      Sorry for the fuss. I did not notice that some default profiles got loaded. One of those blocked access to the sub folders…

      Like

      Reply
  18. Jacob Culleny

    Hi There,

    The RHEL 6.5 system i am using Firejail on uses syslog-ng and not rsyslog. From the troubleshooting I’ve done, i am only able to get the “tracelog” function to work when i manually force rsyslog to run instead of syslog-ng. I cant get syslog-ng to play nicely with blacklist messages – meaning they dont show up at all in /var/log/messages or any other log that I’ve looked at. Is there a way to tell firejail to use syslog-ng instead of rsyslog?

    Like

    Reply

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