man firejail

FIREJAIL(1)                    firejail man page                   FIREJAIL(1)



NAME
       Firejail - Linux namespaces sandbox program

SYNOPSIS
       Start a sandbox:

              firejail [OPTIONS] [program and arguments]

       File transfer from an existing sandbox

              firejail {--ls | --get} dir_or_filename

       Network traffic shaping for an existing sandbox:

              firejail --bandwidth={name|pid} bandwidth-command

       Monitoring:

              firejail {--list | --netstats | --top | --tree}

       Miscellaneous:

              firejail  {-? | --debug-caps | --debug-errnos | --debug-syscalls
              | --debug-protocols | --help | --version}

DESCRIPTION
       Firejail is a SUID sandbox program that reduces the  risk  of  security
       breaches  by  restricting the running environment of untrusted applica‐
       tions using Linux namespaces, seccomp-bpf and Linux  capabilities.   It
       allows a process and all its descendants to have their own private view
       of the globally shared kernel resources, such  as  the  network  stack,
       process table, mount table.  Firejail can work in a SELinux or AppArmor
       environment, and it is integrated with Linux Control Groups.

       Written in C with virtually no dependencies, the software runs  on  any
       Linux  computer with a 3.x kernel version or newer.  It can sandbox any
       type of processes: servers, graphical applications, and even user login
       sessions.

       Firejail  allows the user to manage application security using security
       profiles.  Each profile defines a set of  permissions  for  a  specific
       application  or  group  of applications. The software includes security
       profiles for a number of more common Linux programs,  such  as  Mozilla
       Firefox, Chromium, VLC, Transmission etc.


USAGE
       Without  any  options,  the sandbox consists of a filesystem build in a
       new mount namespace, and new PID and UTS namespaces. IPC,  network  and
       user  namespaces  can  be  added  using  the  command line options. The
       default Firejail filesystem is based on the host  filesystem  with  the
       main  system directories mounted read-only. These directories are /etc,
       /var, /usr, /bin, /sbin, /lib, /lib32, /libx32 and /lib64.  Only  /home
       and /tmp are writable.

       As it starts up, Firejail tries to find a security profile based on the
       name of the application.  If an appropriate profile is not found, Fire‐
       jail will use a default profile.  The default profile is quite restric‐
       tive. In case the application doesn't work, use --noprofile  option  to
       disable  it. For more information, please see SECURITY PROFILES section
       below.

       If a program argument  is  not  specified,  Firejail  starts  /bin/bash
       shell.  Examples:

       $ firejail [OPTIONS]                # starting a /bin/bash shell

       $ firejail [OPTIONS] firefox        # starting Mozilla Firefox

       # sudo firejail [OPTIONS] /etc/init.d/nginx start


OPTIONS
       --     Signal  the  end of options and disables further option process‐
              ing.

       --allow-debuggers
              Allow tools such as strace and gdb inside the sandbox.

              Example:
              $  firejail    --allow-debuggers   --profile=/etc/firejail/fire‐
              fox.profile strace -f firefox

       --apparmor
              Enable  AppArmor  confinement.  For more information, please see
              APPARMOR section below.

       --appimage
              Sandbox an AppImage (http://appimage.org/) application.

              Example:
              $ firejail --appimage krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage
              $ firejail --appimage --private krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage
              $ firejail --appimage --net=none --x11 krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage

       --audit
              Audit the sandbox, see AUDIT section for more details.

       --audit=test-program
              Audit the sandbox, see AUDIT section for more details.

       --bandwidth=name|pid
              Set bandwidth limits for the sandbox identified by name or  PID,
              see TRAFFIC SHAPING section for more details.

       --bind=filename1,filename2
              Mount-bind  filename1  on  top of filename2. This option is only
              available when running as root.

              Example:
              # firejail --bind=/config/etc/passwd,/etc/passwd

       --blacklist=dirname_or_filename
              Blacklist directory or file.

              Example:
              $ firejail --blacklist=/sbin --blacklist=/usr/sbin
              $ firejail --blacklist=~/.mozilla
              $ firejail "--blacklist=/home/username/My Virtual Machines"
              $ firejail --blacklist=/home/username/My\ Virtual\ Machines

       -c     Execute command and exit.

       --caps Linux capabilities is a kernel feature designed to split up  the
              root  privilege into a set of distinct privileges.  These privi‐
              leges can be enabled or disabled independently, thus restricting
              what a process running as root can do in the system.

              By  default  root  programs  run  with all capabilities enabled.
              --caps option disables the following capabilities:  CAP_SYS_MOD‐
              ULE, CAP_SYS_RAWIO, CAP_SYS_BOOT, CAP_SYS_NICE, CAP_SYS_TTY_CON‐
              FIG,  CAP_SYSLOG,  CAP_MKNOD,  CAP_SYS_ADMIN.   The  filter   is
              applied to all processes started in the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --caps /etc/init.d/nginx start


       --caps.drop=all
              Drop  all capabilities for the processes running in the sandbox.
              This option is recommended for running GUI programs or any other
              program  that doesn't require root privileges. It is a must-have
              option for sandboxing untrusted programs installed from  unoffi‐
              cial sources - such as games, Java programs, etc.

              Example:
              $ firejail --caps.drop=all warzone2100


       --caps.drop=capability,capability,capability
              Define a custom blacklist Linux capabilities filter.

              Example:
              $ firejail --caps.keep=net_broadcast,net_admin,net_raw


       --caps.keep=capability,capability,capability
              Define a custom whitelist Linux capabilities filter.

              Example:
              $   sudo   firejail  --caps.keep=chown,net_bind_service,setgid,\
              setuid /etc/init.d/nginx start


       --caps.print=name|pid
              Print the caps filter for the sandbox identified by name  or  by
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --caps.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --caps.print=3272


       --cgroup=tasks-file
              Place  the sandbox in the specified control group. tasks-file is
              the full path of cgroup tasks file.

              Example:
              # firejail --cgroup=/sys/fs/cgroup/g1/tasks


       --chroot=dirname
              Chroot the sandbox into a root filesystem.  Unlike  the  regular
              filesystem  container,  the system directories are mounted read-
              write. If the sandbox is started as a regular user, default sec‐
              comp  and  capabilities  filters are enabled. This option is not
              available on Grsecurity systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --chroot=/media/ubuntu warzone2100


       --cpu=cpu-number,cpu-number,cpu-number
              Set CPU affinity.

              Example:
              $ firejail --cpu=0,1 handbrake


       --cpu.print=name|pid
              Print the CPU cores in use by the sandbox identified by name  or
              by PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --cpu.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --cpu.print=3272


       --csh  Use /bin/csh as default user shell.

              Example:
              $ firejail --csh

       --debug
              Print debug messages.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug firefox


       --debug-blacklists
              Debug blacklisting.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-blacklists firefox


       --debug-caps
              Print  all recognized capabilities in the current Firejail soft‐
              ware build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-caps

       --debug-check-filename
              Debug filename checking.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-check-filename firefox


       --debug-errnos
              Print all recognized error numbers in the current Firejail soft‐
              ware build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-errnos

       --debug-protocols
              Print  all recognized protocols in the current Firejail software
              build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-protocols

       --debug-syscalls
              Print all recognized system calls in the current Firejail  soft‐
              ware build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-syscalls

       --debug-whitelists
              Debug whitelisting.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-whitelists firefox


       --defaultgw=address
              Use  this  address  as default gateway in the new network names‐
              pace.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --defaultgw=10.10.20.1 firefox


       --dns=address
              Set a DNS server for the sandbox. Up to three DNS servers can be
              defined.   Use  this  option if you don't trust the DNS setup on
              your network.

              Example:
              $ firejail --dns=8.8.8.8 --dns=8.8.4.4 firefox


       --dns.print=name|pid
              Print DNS configuration for a sandbox identified by name  or  by
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --dns.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --dns.print=3272


       --env=name=value
              Set environment variable in the new sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --env=LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/opt/test/lib


       --force
              By  default,  if  Firejail is started in an existing sandbox, it
              will run the program in a bash shell.  This option disables this
              behavior,  and  attempts to start Firejail in the existing sand‐
              box.  There could be lots of reasons for it to fail, for example
              if  the existing sandbox disables admin capabilities, SUID bina‐
              ries, or if it runs seccomp.


       --fs.print=name|print
              Print the filesystem log for the sandbox identified by  name  or
              by PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --fs.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --fs.print=3272


       --get=name|pid filename
              Get a file from sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for
              more details.


       -?, --help
              Print options end exit.



       --hostname=name
              Set sandbox hostname.

              Example:
              $ firejail --hostname=officepc firefox


       --ignore=command
              Ignore command in profile file.

              Example:
              $ firejail --ignore=shell --ignore=seccomp firefox


       --interface=interface
              Move interface in a new network namespace. Up to  four  --inter‐
              face  options can be specified.  Note: wlan devices are not sup‐
              ported for this option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --interface=eth1 --interface=eth0.vlan100


       --ip=address
              Assign IP addresses to the last network interface defined  by  a
              --net option. A default gateway is assigned by default.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=10.10.20.56 firefox


       --ip=none
              No IP address and no default gateway are configured for the last
              interface defined by a --net option. Use this option in case you
              intend to start an external DHCP client in the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=none

              If  the  corresponding interface doesn't have an IP address con‐
              figured, this option is enabled by default.


       --ip6=address
              Assign IPv6 addresses to the last network interface defined by a
              --net option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip6=2001:0db8:0:f101::1/64 firefox

              Note:  you don't need this option if you obtain your ip6 address
              from router via SLAAC (your ip6 address and default  route  will
              be configured by kernel automatically).


       --iprange=address,address
              Assign  an  IP address in the provided range to the last network
              interface defined by  a  --net  option.  A  default  gateway  is
              assigned by default.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --iprange=192.168.1.100,192.168.1.150


       --ipc-namespace
              Enable  a new IPC namespace if the sandbox was started as a reg‐
              ular user. IPC namespace is enabled  by  default  for  sandboxes
              started as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --ipc-namespace firefox

       --join=name|pid
              Join  the  sandbox  identified  by  name or by PID. By default a
              /bin/bash shell is started after joining the sandbox.  If a pro‐
              gram  is specified, the program is run in the sandbox. If --join
              command is issued as a regular user, all  security  filters  are
              configured  for  the new process the same they are configured in
              the sandbox.  If --join command is issued as root, the  security
              filters,  cgroups and cpus configurations are not applied to the
              process joining the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --join=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --join=3272


       --join-filesystem=name|pid
              Join the mount namespace of the sandbox identified  by  name  or
              PID.  By  default a /bin/bash shell is started after joining the
              sandbox.  If a program is specified, the program is run  in  the
              sandbox.  This command is available only to root user.  Security
              filters, cgroups and cpus configurations are not applied to  the
              process joining the sandbox.


       --join-network=name|PID
              Join the network namespace of the sandbox identified by name. By
              default a /bin/bash shell is started after joining the  sandbox.
              If  a  program  is specified, the program is run in the sandbox.
              This command is available only to root user.  Security  filters,
              cgroups  and  cpus configurations are not applied to the process
              joining the sandbox. Example:

              # start firefox
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --name=browser firefox &

              # change netfilter configuration
              $ sudo firejail --join-network=browser bash -c  "cat  /etc/fire‐
              jail/nolocal.net | /sbin/iptables-restore"

              # verify netfilter configuration
              $ sudo firejail --join-network=browser /sbin/iptables -vL

              # verify  IP addresses
              $ sudo firejail --join-network=browser ip addr
              Switching  to pid 1932, the first child process inside the sand‐
              box
              1: lo:   mtu  65536  qdisc  noqueue  state
              UNKNOWN group default
                  link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
                  inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
                  inet6 ::1/128 scope host
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
              2:  eth0-1931:   mtu 1500 qdisc
              noqueue state UNKNOWN group default
                  link/ether 76:58:14:42:78:e4 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
                  inet  192.168.1.158/24  brd   192.168.1.255   scope   global
              eth0-1931
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
                  inet6 fe80::7458:14ff:fe42:78e4/64 scope link
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever


       --ls=name|pid dir_or_filename
              List  files  in sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for
              more details.


       --list List all sandboxes, see MONITORING section for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              7015:netblue:firejail firefox
              7056:netblue:firejail --net=eth0 transmission-gtk
              7064:netblue:firejail --noroot xterm
              $

       --mac=address
              Assign MAC addresses to the last network interface defined by  a
              --net option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --mac=00:11:22:33:44:55 firefox


       --mtu=number
              Assign  a  MTU  value to the last network interface defined by a
              --net option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --mtu=1492


       --name=name
              Set sandbox name. Several options, such as  --join  and  --shut‐
              down, can use this name to identify a sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mybrowser firefox


       --net=bridge_interface
              Enable  a  new  network  namespace and connect it to this bridge
              interface.  Unless specified with option --ip  and  --defaultgw,
              an  IP  address and a default gateway will be assigned automati‐
              cally to the sandbox. The  IP  address  is  verified  using  ARP
              before  assignment. The address configured as default gateway is
              the bridge device IP address. Up to four  --net  bridge  devices
              can be defined. Mixing bridge and macvlan devices is allowed.

              Example:
              $ sudo brctl addbr br0
              $ sudo ifconfig br0 10.10.20.1/24
              $ sudo brctl addbr br1
              $ sudo ifconfig br1 10.10.30.1/24
              $ firejail --net=br0 --net=br1


       --net=ethernet_interface
              Enable  a  new network namespace and connect it to this ethernet
              interface using the standard Linux macvlan driver. Unless speci‐
              fied  with  option  --ip  and  --defaultgw,  an IP address and a
              default gateway will be assigned automatically to  the  sandbox.
              The  IP  address  is  verified  using ARP before assignment. The
              address configured as default gateway is the default gateway  of
              the host. Up to four --net devices can be defined. Mixing bridge
              and macvlan devices is allowed.  Note: wlan devices are not sup‐
              ported for this option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=192.168.1.80 --dns=8.8.8.8 firefox


       --net=none
              Enable  a new, unconnected network namespace. The only interface
              available in the new namespace is a new loopback interface (lo).
              Use  this  option  to deny network access to programs that don't
              really need network access.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=none vlc


       --netfilter
              Enable a default client network filter in the new network names‐
              pace.  New network namespaces are created using --net option. If
              a new network namespaces is not created, --netfilter option does
              nothing.  The default filter is as follows:

              *filter
              :INPUT DROP [0:0]
              :FORWARD DROP [0:0]
              :OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
              -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
              # allow ping
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type destination-unreachable -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type time-exceeded -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT
              # drop STUN (WebRTC) requests
              -A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 3478 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 3479 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 3478 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 3479 -j DROP
              COMMIT

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --netfilter firefox

       --netfilter=filename
              Enable  the network filter specified by filename in the new net‐
              work namespace. The filter file format is the  format  of  ipta‐
              bles-save  and iptable-restore commands.  New network namespaces
              are created using --net option. If a new network  namespaces  is
              not created, --netfilter option does nothing.

              The following filters are available in /etc/firejail directory:

              webserver.net  is  a webserver filter that allows access only to
              TCP ports 80 and 443.  Example:

              $ firejail --netfilter=/etc/firejail/webserver.net --net=eth0 \
              /etc/init.d/apache2 start

              nolocal.net is a client filter that disable access to local net‐
              work. Example:

              $ firejail --netfilter=/etc/firejail/nolocal.net \
              --net=eth0 firefox

       --netfilter6=filename
              Enable  the IPv6 network filter specified by filename in the new
              network namespace. The filter  file  format  is  the  format  of
              ip6tables-save   and  ip6table-restore  commands.   New  network
              namespaces are created using --net  option.  If  a  new  network
              namespaces is not created, --netfilter6 option does nothing.

       --netstats
              Monitor network namespace statistics, see MONITORING section for
              more details.

              Example:

              $ firejail --netstats
              PID  User    RX(KB/s) TX(KB/s) Command
              1294 netblue 53.355   1.473    firejail --net=eth0 firefox
              7383 netblue 9.045    0.112    firejail --net=eth0 transmission


       --nice=value
              Set nice value for all processes  running  inside  the  sandbox.
              Only root may specify a negative value.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nice=2 firefox



       --noblacklist=dirname_or_filename
              Disable blacklist for this directory or file.

              Example:
              $ firejail
              $ nc dict.org 2628
              bash: /bin/nc: Permission denied
              $ exit

              $ firejail --noblacklist=/bin/nc
              $ nc dict.org 2628
              220 pan.alephnull.com dictd 1.12.1/rf on Linux 3.14-1-amd64

       --noexec=dirname_or_filename
              Remount directory or file noexec, nodev and nosuid.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noexec=/tmp

              /etc  and  /var are noexec by default if the sandbox was started
              as a regular user. If there are more than one mount operation on
              the  path  of the file or directory, noexec should be applied to
              the last one. Always check if the change took effect inside  the
              sandbox.


       --nogroups
              Disable supplementary groups. Without this option, supplementary
              groups are enabled for the user starting the sandbox.  For  root
              user supplementary groups are always disabled.

              Example:
              $ id
              uid=1000(netblue)       gid=1000(netblue)       groups=1000(net‐
              blue),24(cdrom),25(floppy),27(sudo),29(audio)
              $ firejail --nogroups
              Parent pid 8704, child pid 8705
              Child process initialized
              $ id
              uid=1000(netblue) gid=1000(netblue) groups=1000(netblue)
              $


       --noprofile
              Do not use a security profile.

              Example:
              $ firejail
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/default.profile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

              $ firejail --noprofile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]


       --noroot
              Install a user namespace with a single user - the current  user.
              root  user  does  not  exist  in  the new namespace. This option
              requires a Linux kernel version 3.8 or newer. The option is  not
              supported  for  --chroot  and  --overlay  configurations, or for
              sandboxes started as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noroot
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              $ ping google.com
              ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted
              $


       --nonewprivs
              Sets the NO_NEW_PRIVS prctl.  This ensures that child  processes
              cannot  acquire  new privileges using execve(2);  in particular,
              this means that calling a suid binary (or one with file capabil‐
              ities)  does not result in an increase of privilege. This option
              is enabled by default if seccomp filter is activated.


       --nosound
              Disable sound system.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nosound firefox


       --output=logfile
              stdout logging and log rotation. Copy stdout and stderr to  log‐
              file,  and keep the size of the file under 500KB using log rota‐
              tion. Five files with prefixes .1 to .5 are used in rotation.

              Example:
              $ firejail --output=sandboxlog /bin/bash
              [...]
              $ ls -l sandboxlog*
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 333890 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.1
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.2
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.3
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.4
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.5


       --overlay
              Mount a filesystem overlay on top  of  the  current  filesystem.
              Unlike  the regular filesystem container, the system directories
              are mounted read-write. All filesystem modifications go into the
              overlay.   The overlay is stored in $HOME/.firejail/ direc‐
              tory.

              OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to
              work.   OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel ver‐
              sion 3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay firefox


       --overlay-named=name
              Mount a filesystem overlay on top  of  the  current  filesystem.
              Unlike  the regular filesystem container, the system directories
              are mounted read-write. All filesystem modifications go into the
              overlay.  The overlay is stored in $HOME/.firejail/ direc‐
              tory. The created overlay can be reused  between  multiple  ses‐
              sions.

              OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to
              work.  OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel  ver‐
              sion 3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-named=jail1 firefox


       --overlay-tmpfs
              Mount a filesystem overlay on top of the current filesystem. All
              filesystem modifications go into the overlay, and are  discarded
              when the sandbox is closed.

              OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to
              work.  OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel  ver‐
              sion 3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-tmpfs firefox


       --overlay-clean
              Clean all overlays stored in $HOME/.firejail directory. Overlays
              created with --overlay-path=path  outside  $HOME/.firejail  will
              not be deleted.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-clean


       --private
              Mount new /root and /home/user directories in temporary filesys‐
              tems. All  modifications  are  discarded  when  the  sandbox  is
              closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private firefox

       --private=directory
              Use directory as user home.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private=/home/netblue/firefox-home firefox


       --private-home=file,directory
              Build  a  new  user home in a temporary filesystem, and copy the
              files and directories in the list in the new home. All modifica‐
              tions are discarded when the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-home=.mozilla firefox


       --private-bin=file,file
              Build  a  new  /bin in a temporary filesystem, and copy the pro‐
              grams in the list.  If no listed file is found,  /bin  directory
              will  be  empty.   The  same directory is also bind-mounted over
              /sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin and  /usr/local/bin.   All  modifica‐
              tions are discarded when the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-bin=bash,sed,ls,cat
              Parent pid 20841, child pid 20842
              Child process initialized
              $ ls /bin
              bash  cat  ls  sed


       --private-dev
              Create  a  new  /dev directory. Only dri, null, full, zero, tty,
              pts, ptmx, random, snd, urandom, log and shm devices are  avail‐
              able.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-dev
              Parent pid 9887, child pid 9888
              Child process initialized
              $ ls /dev
              dri   full  log  null  ptmx  pts  random  shm  snd  tty  urandom
              zero
              $

       --private-etc=file,directory
              Build a new /etc in a temporary filesystem, and copy  the  files
              and  directories  in the list.  If no listed file is found, /etc
              directory will be empty.  All modifications are  discarded  when
              the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-etc=group,hostname,localtime, \
              nsswitch.conf,passwd,resolv.conf


       --private-tmp
              Mount an empty temporary filesystem on top of /tmp directory.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-tmp


       --profile=filename
              Load  a  custom security profile from filename. For filename use
              an absolute path or a path relative to the  current  path.   For
              more information, see SECURITY PROFILES section below.

              Example:
              $ firejail --profile=myprofile


       --profile-path=directory
              Use  this  directory  to look for profile files. Use an absolute
              path or a path in the home directory starting with ~/.  For more
              information,  see SECURITY PROFILES section below and RELOCATING
              PROFILE FILES in man 5 firejail-profile.

              Example:
              $ firejail --profile-path=~/myprofiles
              $ firejail --profile-path=/home/netblue/myprofiles


       --protocol=protocol,protocol,protocol
              Enable protocol filter. The  filter  is  based  on  seccomp  and
              checks  the  first  argument  to socket system call.  Recognized
              values: unix, inet, inet6, netlink and packet.  This  option  is
              not supported for i386 architecture.

              Example:
              $ firejail --protocol=unix,inet,inet6 firefox

       --protocol.print=name|pid
              Print  the protocol filter for the sandbox identified by name or
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mybrowser firefox &
              $ firejail --protocol.print=mybrowser
              unix,inet,inet6,netlink

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --protocol.print=3272
              unix,inet,inet6,netlink

       --quiet
              Turn off Firejail's output.

       --read-only=dirname_or_filename
              Set directory or file read-only.

              Example:
              $ firejail --read-only=~/.mozilla firefox

              A short note about mixing --whitelist and  --read-only  options.
              Whitelisted  directories should be made read-only independently.
              Making a parent directory read-only, will not make the whitelist
              read-only. Example:

              $ firejail --whitelist=~/work --read-only=~ --read-only=~/work


       --read-write=dirname_or_filename
              Set  directory  or  file  read-write.  Only files or directories
              belonging to the current user are allowed  for  this  operation.
              Example:

              $ mkdir ~/test
              $ touch ~/test/a
              $ firejail --read-only=~/test --read-write=~/test/a



       --rlimit-fsize=number
              Set the maximum file size that can be created by a process.

       --rlimit-nofile=number
              Set the maximum number of files that can be opened by a process.

       --rlimit-nproc=number
              Set  the maximum number of processes that can be created for the
              real user ID of the calling process.

       --rlimit-sigpending=number
              Set the maximum number of pending signals for a process.


       --rmenv=name
              Remove environment variable in the new sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --rmenv=DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS


       --scan ARP-scan all the networks from inside a network namespace.  This
              makes  it  possible to detect macvlan kernel device drivers run‐
              ning on the current host.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --scan

       --seccomp
              Enable seccomp filter and blacklist the syscalls in the  default
              list.  The  default  list is as follows: mount, umount2, ptrace,
              kexec_load,  kexec_file_load,  name_to_handle_at,   open_by_han‐
              dle_at, create_module, init_module, finit_module, delete_module,
              iopl,   ioperm,    ioprio_set,    swapon,    swapoff,    syslog,
              process_vm_readv,  process_vm_writev,  sysfs,_sysctl,  adjtimex,
              clock_adjtime, lookup_dcookie,  perf_event_open,  fanotify_init,
              kcmp,  add_key,  request_key,  keyctl, uselib, acct, modify_ldt,
              pivot_root,  io_setup,  io_destroy,   io_getevents,   io_submit,
              io_cancel,  remap_file_pages,  mbind, get_mempolicy, set_mempol‐
              icy,  migrate_pages,  move_pages,  vmsplice,  chroot,   tuxcall,
              reboot, mfsservctl and get_kernel_syms.

              System  architecture  is  not  strictly  imposed.  The filter is
              applied at  run  time  only  if  the  correct  architecture  was
              detected.  For the case of I386 and AMD64 both 32-bit and 64-bit
              filters are installed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp

       --seccomp=syscall,syscall,syscall
              Enable seccomp  filter,  blacklist  the  default  list  and  the
              syscalls specified by the command.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp=utime,utimensat,utimes firefox

       --seccomp.drop=syscall,syscall,syscall
              Enable  seccomp  filter, and blacklist the syscalls specified by
              the command.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp.drop=utime,utimensat,utimes

       --seccomp.keep=syscall,syscall,syscall
              Enable seccomp filter, and whitelist the syscalls  specified  by
              the command.

              Example:
              $  firejail --shell=none --seccomp.keep=poll,select,[...] trans‐
              mission-gtk

       --seccomp.=syscall,syscall,syscall
              Enable seccomp filter, and return errno for the syscalls  speci‐
              fied by the command.

              Example: a Bash shell where deleting files is disabled

              $ firejail --seccomp.eperm=unlinkat
              Parent pid 10662, child pid 10663
              Child process initialized
              $ touch testfile
              $ rm testfile
              rm: cannot remove `testfile': Operation not permitted


       --seccomp.print=name|PID
              Print  the  seccomp filter for the sandbox identified by name or
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=browser firefox &
              $ firejail --seccomp.print=browser
              SECCOMP Filter:
                VALIDATE_ARCHITECTURE
                EXAMINE_SYSCALL
                BLACKLIST 165 mount
                BLACKLIST 166 umount2
                BLACKLIST 101 ptrace
                BLACKLIST 246 kexec_load
                BLACKLIST 304 open_by_handle_at
                BLACKLIST 175 init_module
                BLACKLIST 176 delete_module
                BLACKLIST 172 iopl
                BLACKLIST 173 ioperm
                BLACKLIST 167 swapon
                BLACKLIST 168 swapoff
                BLACKLIST 103 syslog
                BLACKLIST 310 process_vm_readv
                BLACKLIST 311 process_vm_writev
                BLACKLIST 133 mknod
                BLACKLIST 139 sysfs
                BLACKLIST 156 _sysctl
                BLACKLIST 159 adjtimex
                BLACKLIST 305 clock_adjtime
                BLACKLIST 212 lookup_dcookie
                BLACKLIST 298 perf_event_open
                BLACKLIST 300 fanotify_init
                RETURN_ALLOW
              $

       --shell=none
              Run the program directly, without a user shell.

              Example:
              $ firejail --shell=none script.sh

       --shell=program
              Set default user shell. Use this shell to  run  the  application
              using  -c shell option.  For example "firejail --shell=/bin/dash
              firefox" will start Mozilla Firefox as "/bin/dash  -c  firefox".
              By default Bash shell (/bin/bash) is used. Options such as --zsh
              and --csh can also set the default shell.

              Example: $firejail --shell=/bin/dash script.sh

       --shutdown=name|PID
              Shutdown the sandbox identified by name or PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --shutdown=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --shutdown=3272

       --tmpfs=dirname
              Mount a tmpfs filesystem on directory dirname.  This  option  is
              available only when running the sandbox as root.

              Example:
              # firejail --tmpfs=/var

       --top  Monitor the most CPU-intensive sandboxes, see MONITORING section
              for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --top

       --trace
              Trace open, access and connect system calls.

              Example:
              $ firejail --trace wget -q www.debian.org
              Parent pid 11793, child pid 11794
              Child process initialized
              1:bash:open /dev/tty
              1:wget:fopen64 /etc/wgetrc
              1:wget:fopen /etc/hosts
              1:wget:socket AF_INET SOCK_DGRAM IPPROTO_IP
              1:wget:connect 8.8.8.8:53
              1:wget:socket AF_INET SOCK_STREAM IPPROTO_IP
              1:wget:connect 140.211.15.34:80
              1:wget:fopen64 index.html.1

              parent is shutting down, bye...

       --tracelog
              This option enables auditing blacklisted files and  directories.
              A message is sent to syslog in case the file or the directory is
              accessed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --tracelog firefox

              Sample messages:
              $ sudo tail -f /var/log/syslog
              [...]
              Dec  3 11:43:25 debian firejail[70]: blacklist violation - sand‐
              box 26370, exe firefox, syscall open64, path /etc/shadow
              Dec  3 11:46:17 debian firejail[70]: blacklist violation - sand‐
              box 26370, exe firefox, syscall opendir, path /boot
              [...]

       --tree Print a tree of all sandboxed processes, see MONITORING  section
              for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --tree
              11903:netblue:firejail iceweasel
                11904:netblue:iceweasel
                  11957:netblue:/usr/lib/iceweasel/plugin-container
              11969:netblue:firejail --net=eth0 transmission-gtk
                11970:netblue:transmission-gtk


       --version
              Print program version and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --version
              firejail version 0.9.27

       --whitelist=dirname_or_filename
              Whitelist  directory or file. A temporary file system is mounted
              on the top directory, and the whitelisted files are mount-binded
              inside.  Modifications  to  whitelisted  files  are  persistent,
              everything else is discarded when the sandbox is closed. The top
              directory  could  be  user  home,  /dev, /media, /opt, /var, and
              /tmp.

              Symbolic link handling: with the exception of  user  home,  both
              the  link and the real file should be in the same top directory.
              For user home, both the link and the real file should  be  owned
              by the user.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noprofile --whitelist=~/.mozilla
              $ firejail --whitelist=/tmp/.X11-unix --whitelist=/dev/null
              $ firejail "--whitelist=/home/username/My Virtual Machines"


       --writable-etc
              Mount /etc directory read-write.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-etc


       --writable-var
              Mount /var directory read-write.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-var



       --x11  Start a new X11 server using Xpra or Xephyr and attach the sand‐
              box to this server.  The regular X11 server (display 0)  is  not
              visible  in  the sandbox. This prevents screenshot and keylogger
              applications started in the sandbox  from  accessing  other  X11
              displays.  A network namespace needs to be instantiated in order
              to deny access to X11 abstract Unix domain socket.

              br Firejail will try first Xpra, and if Xpra is not installed on
              the  system,  it  will  try to find Xephyr.  This feature is not
              available when running as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11 --net=eth0 firefox


       --x11=xpra
              Start a new X11 server using Xpra (http://xpra.org)  and  attach
              the sandbox to this server.  Xpra is a persistent remote display
              server and client for forwarding X11  applications  and  desktop
              screens.  On Debian platforms Xpra is installed with the command
              sudo apt-get install xpra.  This feature is not  available  when
              running as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11=xpra --net=eth0 firefox


       --x11=xephyr
              Start  a  new  X11 server using Xephyr and attach the sandbox to
              this server.  Xephyr is a display server  implementing  the  X11
              display  server protocol.  It runs in a window just like other X
              applications, but it is an X server itself in which you can  run
              other software.  The default Xephyr window size is 800x600. This
              can be modified in /etc/firejail/firejail.config file, see man 5
              firejail-config for more details.

              The  recommended way to use this feature is to run a window man‐
              ager inside the sandbox.  A security profile for OpenBox is pro‐
              vided.  On Debian platforms Xephyr is installed with the command
              sudo apt-get install xserver-xephyr.  This feature is not avail‐
              able when running as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11=xephyr --net=eth0 openbox


       --zsh  Use /usr/bin/zsh as default user shell.

              Example:
              $ firejail --zsh


DESKTOP INTEGRATION
       A  symbolic link to /usr/bin/firejail under the name of a program, will
       start the program in Firejail sandbox.  The  symbolic  link  should  be
       placed  in  the  first $PATH position. On most systems, a good place is
       /usr/local/bin directory. Example:

              Make a firefox symlink to /usr/bin/firejail:

              $ ln -s /usr/bin/firejail /usr/local/bin/firefox

              Verify $PATH

              $ which -a firefox
              /usr/local/bin/firefox
              /usr/bin/firefox

              Starting firefox in this moment, automatically invokes “firejail
              firefox”.

       This  works  for  clicking on desktop environment icons, menus etc. Use
       "firejail --tree" to verify the program is sandboxed.

              $ firejail --tree
              1189:netblue:firejail firefox
                1190:netblue:firejail firefox
                  1220:netblue:/bin/sh -c "/usr/lib/firefox/firefox"
                    1221:netblue:/usr/lib/firefox/firefox


APPARMOR
       AppArmor support is disabled by default at compile time. Use  --enable-
       apparmor configuration option to enable it:

              $ ./configure --prefix=/usr --enable-apparmor

       During  software  install,  a  generic AppArmor profile file, firejail-
       default, is placed in /etc/apparmor.d directory. The profile  needs  to
       be loaded into the kernel by running the following command as root:

              # aa-enforce firejail-default

       The  installed  profile  tries to replicate some advanced security fea‐
       tures inspired by kernel-based Grsecurity:

              - Prevent information leakage in /proc and /sys directories. The
              resulting  filesystem is barely enough for running commands such
              as "top" and "ps aux".

              - Allow running programs only from well-known system paths, such
              as  /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin etc. Running programs and scripts from
              user home or other directories  writable  by  the  user  is  not
              allowed.

              -  Disable  D-Bus. D-Bus has long been a huge security hole, and
              most programs don't use it anyway.  You should have no  problems
              running Chromium or Firefox.


       To enable AppArmor confinement on top of your current Firejail security
       features, pass --apparmor flag to Firejail command line. You  can  also
       include apparmor command in a Firejail profile file. Example:

              $ firejail --apparmor firefox


FILE TRANSFER
       These features allow the user to inspect the filesystem container of an
       existing sandbox and transfer files from  the  container  to  the  host
       filesystem.


       --get=name|pid filename
              Retrieve the container file and store it on the host in the cur‐
              rent working directory.  The container is specified by  name  or
              PID. Full path is needed for filename.


       --ls=name|pid dir_or_filename
              List container files. The container is specified by name or PID.
              Full path is needed for dir_or_filename.


       Examples:

              $ firejail --name=mybrowser --private firefox

              $ firejail --ls=mybrowser ~/Downloads
              drwxr-xr-x netblue  netblue         4096 .
              drwxr-xr-x netblue  netblue         4096 ..
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue         7847 x11-x305.png
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue         6800 x11-x642.png
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue        34139 xpra-clipboard.png

              $ firejail --get=mybrowser ~/Downloads/xpra-clipboard.png



TRAFFIC SHAPING
       Network bandwidth is an expensive resource shared among  all  sandboxes
       running  on a system.  Traffic shaping allows the user to increase net‐
       work performance by controlling the amount of data that flows into  and
       out of the sandboxes.

       Firejail  implements  a simple rate-limiting shaper based on Linux com‐
       mand tc.  The shaper works at sandbox level, and can be used  only  for
       sandboxes configured with new network namespaces.

       Set rate-limits:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid set network download upload

       Clear rate-limits:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid clear network

       Status:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid status

       where:
            name - sandbox name
            pid - sandbox pid
            network - network interface as used by --net option
            download - download speed in KB/s (kilobyte per second)
            upload - upload speed in KB/s (kilobyte per second)

       Example:
            $ firejail --name=mybrowser --net=eth0 firefox &
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser set eth0 80 20
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser status
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser clear eth0


AUDIT
       Audit  feature  allows the user to point out gaps in security profiles.
       The implementation replaces the program to be  sandboxed  with  a  test
       program. By default, we use faudit program distributed with Firejail. A
       custom test program can also be supplied by the user. Examples:

       Running the default audit program:
            $ firejail --audit transmission-gtk

       Running a custom audit program:
            $ firejail --audit=~/sandbox-test transmission-gtk

       In the examples above, the sandbox configures transmission-gtk  profile
       and  starts  the test program. The real program, transmission-gtk, will
       not be started.

       Limitations: audit feature is not implemented for --x11 commands.


MONITORING
       Option --list prints a list of  all  sandboxes.  The  format  for  each
       process entry is as follows:

            PID:USER:Command

       Option  --tree prints the tree of processes running in the sandbox. The
       format for each process entry is as follows:

            PID:USER:Command

       Option --top is similar to the UNIX top  command,  however  it  applies
       only to sandboxes.

       Option  --netstats  prints  network  statistics  for  active  sandboxes
       installing new network namespaces.


       Listed below are the available fields (columns) in  alphabetical  order
       for --top and --netstat options:


       Command
              Command used to start the sandbox.

       CPU%   CPU  usage,  the sandbox share of the elapsed CPU time since the
              last screen update

       PID    Unique process ID for the task controlling the sandbox.

       Prcs   Number of processes running in sandbox, including  the  control‐
              ling process.

       RES    Resident Memory Size (KiB), sandbox non-swapped physical memory.
              It is a sum of the RES values for all processes running  in  the
              sandbox.

       RX(KB/s)
              Network receive speed.

       SHR    Shared  Memory  Size (KiB), it reflects memory shared with other
              processes. It is a sum of the SHR values for all processes  run‐
              ning in the sandbox, including the controlling process.

       TX(KB/s)
              Network transmit speed.

       Uptime Sandbox running time in hours:minutes:seconds format.

       User   The owner of the sandbox.


SECURITY PROFILES
       Several command line options can be passed to the program using profile
       files. Firejail chooses the profile file as follows:

       1. If a profile file is provided by the user with --profile option, the
       profile file is loaded.  Example:

              $ firejail --profile=/home/netblue/icecat.profile icecat
              Reading profile /home/netblue/icecat.profile
              [...]

       2.  If  a profile file with the same name as the application is present
       in ~/.config/firejail directory or in  /etc/firejail,  the  profile  is
       loaded.  ~/.config/firejail  takes precedence over /etc/firejail. Exam‐
       ple:

              $ firejail icecat
              Command name #icecat#
              Found icecat profile in /home/netblue/.config/firejail directory
              Reading profile /home/netblue/.config/firejail/icecat.profile
              [...]

       3. Use default.profile file if the sandbox  is  started  by  a  regular
       user,  or  server.profile file if the sandbox is started by root. Fire‐
       jail looks for these files in ~/.config/firejail directory, followed by
       /etc/firejail  directory.   To  disable  default  profile  loading, use
       --noprofile command option. Example:

              $ firejail
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/default.profile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

              $ firejail --noprofile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

       See man 5 firejail-profile for profile file syntax information.

RESTRICTED SHELL
       To configure a restricted shell, replace /bin/bash with  /usr/bin/fire‐
       jail  in  /etc/passwd  file  for each user that needs to be restricted.
       Alternatively, you can specify /usr/bin/firejail  in adduser command:

       adduser --shell /usr/bin/firejail username

       Additional arguments passed  to  firejail  executable  upon  login  are
       declared in /etc/firejail/login.users file.


EXAMPLES
       firejail
              Sandbox a regular /bin/bash session.

       firejail firefox
              Start Mozilla Firefox.

       firejail --debug firefox
              Debug Firefox sandbox.

       firejail --private firefox
              Start Firefox with a new, empty home directory.

       firejail --net=none vlc
              Start VLC in an unconnected network namespace.

       firejail --net=eth0 firefox
              Start  Firefox  in  a  new  network  namespace. An IP address is
              assigned automatically.

       firejail --net=br0 --ip=10.10.20.5 --net=br1 --net=br2
              Start a /bin/bash session in a new network namespace and connect
              it  to  br0,  br1, and br2 host bridge devices. IP addresses are
              assigned automatically for the interfaces connected to  br1  and
              b2

       firejail --list
              List all sandboxed processes.

LICENSE
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published  by  the
       Free  Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your
       option) any later version.

       Homepage: https://firejail.wordpress.com

SEE ALSO
       firemon(1), firecfg(1),  firejail-profile(5),  firejail-login(5)  fire‐
       jail-config(5)






0.9.42                             Sep 2016                        FIREJAIL(1)

16 thoughts on “man firejail

  1. Chiraag

    I’m having some difficulty in getting mpd to background properly inside firejail. Using “mpd; sleep inf;” worked before, but it’s now responding with “mpd; sleep inf;: command not found”. What is the “official” way to get this working again? Thanks!

    Like

    Reply
  2. GNUser

    nosound option is breaking profiles.
    I tried it in icedove, piding, firefox, and it breaks all of them. if i try to use a profile that has that option it just gives an error in that line. If I do it like “firejail –nosound firefox” however it works flawlessly. I am using 0.9.38

    Any idea?

    Like

    Reply
      1. GNUser

        I expected it to just prevent that specific application from using sound. It is very “anti-feature” this way, since to prevent one application from being exploited and used to spy, we lose sound in all the other apps. Any workaround?

        Like

  3. procoolheat

    When I installed this for use with Chrome it created a profile somewhere for Chrome so it starts with a loaded Chrome cache and some features enabled on Chrome extensions. So I clear the cache and change the extension settings every time I use it firejail google-chrome is how I start it. I’ve even removed it and reinstalled it but the profile is always the same. This is the latest version also. How do I go about deleting this? It’s acting like its in private mode which I thought was deprecated, Help!

    Like

    Reply
    1. netblue30 Post author

      google-chrome configuration is persistent, and is stored in ~/.config/google-chrome directory. So, if you add a bookmark, next time you start chrome, your bookmark should be there. You can delete the configuration before starting chrome (rm -fr ~/.config/google-chrome). Your Download directory is also persistent.

      If you really want to start every time with a default chrome config, you should run “firejail –private google-chrome”.

      Liked by 1 person

      Reply
  4. Martin

    [quote]
    This works for clicking on desktop environment icons, menus etc. Use
    “firejail –tree” to verify the program is sandboxed.
    [/quote]

    Sadly it’s not working for most applications in Gnome3 in Debian Stretch. Probably because in the *.desktop files there is the full path written.
    Do you know a workaround or you suggest to file a bugreport?

    Like

    Reply

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