man firejail

FIREJAIL(1)                   firejail man page                   FIREJAIL(1)

NAME
       Firejail - Linux namespaces sandbox program

SYNOPSIS
       Start a sandbox:

              firejail [OPTIONS] [program and arguments]

       File transfer from an existing sandbox

              firejail {--ls | --get | --put} dir_or_filename

       Network traffic shaping for an existing sandbox:

              firejail --bandwidth={name|pid} bandwidth-command

       Monitoring:

              firejail {--list | --netstats | --top | --tree}

       Miscellaneous:

              firejail {-? | --debug-caps | --debug-errnos | --debug-syscalls
              | --debug-protocols | --help | --version}

DESCRIPTION
       Firejail is a SUID sandbox program that reduces the risk  of  security
       breaches  by restricting the running environment of untrusted applica‐
       tions using Linux namespaces, seccomp-bpf and Linux capabilities.   It
       allows  a  process  and  all its descendants to have their own private
       view of the globally shared kernel  resources,  such  as  the  network
       stack,  process table, mount table.  Firejail can work in a SELinux or
       AppArmor environment, and it is integrated with Linux Control Groups.

       Written in C with virtually no dependencies, the software runs on  any
       Linux computer with a 3.x kernel version or newer.  It can sandbox any
       type of processes: servers,  graphical  applications,  and  even  user
       login sessions.

       Firejail allows the user to manage application security using security
       profiles.  Each profile defines a set of permissions  for  a  specific
       application  or  group of applications. The software includes security
       profiles for a number of more common Linux programs, such  as  Mozilla
       Firefox, Chromium, VLC, Transmission etc.

USAGE
       Without  any  options, the sandbox consists of a filesystem build in a
       new mount namespace, and new PID and UTS namespaces. IPC, network  and
       user  namespaces  can  be  added  using  the command line options. The
       default Firejail filesystem is based on the host filesystem  with  the
       main system directories mounted read-only. These directories are /etc,
       /var, /usr, /bin, /sbin, /lib, /lib32, /libx32 and /lib64. Only  /home
       and /tmp are writable.

       As  it  starts  up, Firejail tries to find a security profile based on
       the name of the application.  If an appropriate profile is not  found,
       Firejail  will  use  a  default profile.  The default profile is quite
       restrictive. In case the application  doesn't  work,  use  --noprofile
       option  to  disable it. For more information, please see SECURITY PRO‐
       FILES section below.

       If a program argument is  not  specified,  Firejail  starts  /bin/bash
       shell.  Examples:

       $ firejail [OPTIONS]                # starting a /bin/bash shell

       $ firejail [OPTIONS] firefox        # starting Mozilla Firefox

       # sudo firejail [OPTIONS] /etc/init.d/nginx start

OPTIONS
       --     Signal  the end of options and disables further option process‐
              ing.

       --allow-debuggers
              Allow tools such as  strace  and  gdb  inside  the  sandbox  by
              whitelisting  system  calls  ptrace  and process_vm_readv. This
              option is only available when running on Linux kernels  4.8  or
              newer - a kernel bug in ptrace system call allows a full bypass
              of the seccomp filter.

              Example:
              $  firejail   --allow-debuggers   --profile=/etc/firejail/fire‐
              fox.profile strace -f firefox

       --allow-private-blacklist
              Allow  blacklisting files in private home directory. By default
              these blacklists are disabled.

              Example:
              $  firejail    --allow-private-blacklist   --private=~/priv-dir
              --blacklist=~/.mozilla

       --allusers
              All  directories under /home are visible inside the sandbox. By
              default, only current user home directory is visible.

              Example:
              $ firejail --allusers

       --apparmor
              Enable AppArmor confinement. For more information,  please  see
              APPARMOR section below.

       --appimage
              Sandbox an AppImage (http://appimage.org/) application.

              Example:
              $ firejail --appimage krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage
              $ firejail --appimage --private krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage
              $  firejail --appimage --net=none --x11 krita-3.0-x86_64.appim‐
              age

       --audit
              Audit the sandbox, see AUDIT section for more details.

       --audit=test-program
              Audit the sandbox, see AUDIT section for more details.

       --bandwidth=name|pid
              Set bandwidth limits for the sandbox identified by name or PID,
              see TRAFFIC SHAPING section for more details.

       --bind=filename1,filename2
              Mount-bind  filename1  on top of filename2. This option is only
              available when running as root.

              Example:
              # firejail --bind=/config/etc/passwd,/etc/passwd

       --blacklist=dirname_or_filename
              Blacklist directory or file.

              Example:
              $ firejail --blacklist=/sbin --blacklist=/usr/sbin
              $ firejail --blacklist=~/.mozilla
              $ firejail "--blacklist=/home/username/My Virtual Machines"
              $ firejail --blacklist=/home/username/My\ Virtual\ Machines

       -c     Execute command and exit.

       --caps Linux capabilities is a kernel feature designed to split up the
              root privilege into a set of distinct privileges.  These privi‐
              leges can be enabled or disabled independently, thus  restrict‐
              ing what a process running as root can do in the system.

              By  default  root  programs  run with all capabilities enabled.
              --caps option disables the following capabilities: CAP_SYS_MOD‐
              ULE,       CAP_SYS_RAWIO,      CAP_SYS_BOOT,      CAP_SYS_NICE,
              CAP_SYS_TTY_CONFIG, CAP_SYSLOG, CAP_MKNOD, CAP_SYS_ADMIN.   The
              filter is applied to all processes started in the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --caps /etc/init.d/nginx start

       --caps.drop=all
              Drop all capabilities for the processes running in the sandbox.
              This option is recommended for  running  GUI  programs  or  any
              other  program  that  doesn't  require root privileges. It is a
              must-have option for sandboxing  untrusted  programs  installed
              from unofficial sources - such as games, Java programs, etc.

              Example:
              $ firejail --caps.drop=all warzone2100

       --caps.drop=capability,capability,capability
              Define a custom blacklist Linux capabilities filter.

              Example:
              $ firejail --caps.drop=net_broadcast,net_admin,net_raw

       --caps.keep=capability,capability,capability
              Define a custom whitelist Linux capabilities filter.

              Example:
              $   sudo  firejail  --caps.keep=chown,net_bind_service,setgid,\
              setuid /etc/init.d/nginx start

       --caps.print=name|pid
              Print the caps filter for the sandbox identified by name or  by
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --caps.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --caps.print=3272

       --cgroup=tasks-file
              Place the sandbox in the specified control group. tasks-file is
              the full path of cgroup tasks file.

              Example:
              # firejail --cgroup=/sys/fs/cgroup/g1/tasks

       --chroot=dirname
              Chroot the sandbox into a root filesystem. Unlike  the  regular
              filesystem  container, the system directories are mounted read-
              write. If the sandbox is started as  a  regular  user,  default
              seccomp  and  capabilities  filters are enabled. This option is
              not available on Grsecurity systems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --chroot=/media/ubuntu warzone2100

       --cpu=cpu-number,cpu-number,cpu-number
              Set CPU affinity.

              Example:
              $ firejail --cpu=0,1 handbrake

       --cpu.print=name|pid
              Print the CPU cores in use by the sandbox identified by name or
              by PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --cpu.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --cpu.print=3272

       --csh  Use /bin/csh as default user shell.

              Example:
              $ firejail --csh

       --debug
              Print debug messages.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug firefox

       --debug-blacklists
              Debug blacklisting.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-blacklists firefox

       --debug-caps
              Print all recognized capabilities in the current Firejail soft‐
              ware build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-caps

       --debug-check-filename
              Debug filename checking.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-check-filename firefox

       --debug-errnos
              Print all recognized error  numbers  in  the  current  Firejail
              software build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-errnos

       --debug-protocols
              Print all recognized protocols in the current Firejail software
              build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-protocols

       --debug-syscalls
              Print all recognized system calls in the current Firejail soft‐
              ware build and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-syscalls

       --debug-whitelists
              Debug whitelisting.

              Example:
              $ firejail --debug-whitelists firefox

       --defaultgw=address
              Use  this  address as default gateway in the new network names‐
              pace.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --defaultgw=10.10.20.1 firefox

       --disable-mnt
              Disable /mnt, /media, /run/mount and /run/media access.

              Example:
              $ firejail --disable-mnt firefox

       --dns=address
              Set a DNS server for the sandbox. Up to three DNS  servers  can
              be  defined.   Use this option if you don't trust the DNS setup
              on your network.

              Example:
              $ firejail --dns=8.8.8.8 --dns=8.8.4.4 firefox

       --dns.print=name|pid
              Print DNS configuration for a sandbox identified by name or  by
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --dns.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --dns.print=3272

       --env=name=value
              Set environment variable in the new sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --env=LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/opt/test/lib

       --force
              By  default,  if Firejail is started in an existing sandbox, it
              will run the program in a bash  shell.   This  option  disables
              this  behavior,  and attempts to start Firejail in the existing
              sandbox.  There could be lots of reasons for it  to  fail,  for
              example  if  the  existing sandbox disables admin capabilities,
              SUID binaries, or if it runs seccomp.

       --fs.print=name|print
              Print the filesystem log for the sandbox identified by name  or
              by PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --fs.print=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --fs.print=3272

       --get=name|pid filename
              Get  a  file  from sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section
              for more details.

       --git-install
              Download, compile and install mainline git version of  Firejail
              from  the  official  repository  on  GitHub.   The  software is
              installed in /usr/local/bin,  and  takes  precedence  over  the
              (old)  version installed in /usr/bin. If for any reason the new
              version doesn't work, the user can uninstall  it  using  --git-
              uninstall command and revert to the old version.

              Prerequisites:  git  and  compile support are required for this
              command to work.  On  Debian/Ubuntu  systems  this  support  is
              installed using "sudo apt-get install build-essential git".

              Example:

              $ firejail --git-install

       --git-uninstall
              Remove   the   Firejail   version   previously   installed   in
              /usr/local/bin using --git-install command.

              Example:

              $ firejail --git-uninstall

       -?, --help
              Print options end exit.

       --hostname=name
              Set sandbox hostname.

              Example:
              $ firejail --hostname=officepc firefox

       --hosts-file=file
              Use file as /etc/hosts.

              Example:
              $ firejail --hosts-file=~/myhosts firefox

       --ignore=command
              Ignore command in profile file.

              Example:
              $ firejail --ignore=shell --ignore=seccomp firefox

       --interface=interface
              Move interface in a new network namespace. Up to four  --inter‐
              face options can be specified.  Note: wlan devices are not sup‐
              ported for this option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --interface=eth1 --interface=eth0.vlan100

       --ip=address
              Assign IP addresses to the last network interface defined by  a
              --net option. A default gateway is assigned by default.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=10.10.20.56 firefox

       --ip=none
              No  IP  address  and  no default gateway are configured for the
              last interface defined by a --net option. Use  this  option  in
              case  you  intend to start an external DHCP client in the sand‐
              box.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=none

              If the corresponding interface doesn't have an IP address  con‐
              figured, this option is enabled by default.

       --ip6=address
              Assign  IPv6 addresses to the last network interface defined by
              a --net option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip6=2001:0db8:0:f101::1/64 firefox

              Note: you don't need this option if you obtain your ip6 address
              from  router via SLAAC (your ip6 address and default route will
              be configured by kernel automatically).

       --iprange=address,address
              Assign an IP address in the provided range to the last  network
              interface  defined  by  a  --net  option.  A default gateway is
              assigned by default.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --iprange=192.168.1.100,192.168.1.150

       --ipc-namespace
              Enable  a new IPC namespace if the sandbox  was  started  as  a
              regular user. IPC namespace is enabled by default for sandboxes
              started as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --ipc-namespace firefox

       --join=name|pid
              Join the sandbox identified by name or by  PID.  By  default  a
              /bin/bash  shell  is  started  after joining the sandbox.  If a
              program is specified, the program is run  in  the  sandbox.  If
              --join  command  is issued as a regular user, all security fil‐
              ters are configured for the new process the same they are  con‐
              figured  in  the sandbox.  If --join command is issued as root,
              the security filters, cgroups and cpus configurations  are  not
              applied to the process joining the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --join=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --join=3272

       --join-filesystem=name|pid
              Join  the  mount namespace of the sandbox identified by name or
              PID. By default a /bin/bash shell is started after joining  the
              sandbox.   If a program is specified, the program is run in the
              sandbox. This command is available only to root user.  Security
              filters, cgroups and cpus configurations are not applied to the
              process joining the sandbox.

       --join-network=name|PID
              Join the network namespace of the sandbox identified  by  name.
              By default a /bin/bash shell is started after joining the sand‐
              box.  If a program is specified, the  program  is  run  in  the
              sandbox. This command is available only to root user.  Security
              filters, cgroups and cpus configurations are not applied to the
              process joining the sandbox. Example:

              # start firefox
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --name=browser firefox &

              # change netfilter configuration
              $  sudo firejail --join-network=browser bash -c "cat /etc/fire‐
              jail/nolocal.net | /sbin/iptables-restore"

              # verify netfilter configuration
              $ sudo firejail --join-network=browser /sbin/iptables -vL

              # verify  IP addresses
              $ sudo firejail --join-network=browser ip addr
              Switching to pid 1932, the first child process inside the sand‐
              box
              1:  lo:    mtu  65536 qdisc noqueue state
              UNKNOWN group default
                  link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
                  inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
                  inet6 ::1/128 scope host
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
              2: eth0-1931:  mtu 1500  qdisc
              noqueue state UNKNOWN group default
                  link/ether 76:58:14:42:78:e4 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
                  inet   192.168.1.158/24   brd  192.168.1.255  scope  global
              eth0-1931
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
                  inet6 fe80::7458:14ff:fe42:78e4/64 scope link
                     valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

       --join-or-start=name
              Join the sandbox identified by name or start a new  one.   Same
              as  "firejail  --join=name"  if  sandbox  with  specified  name
              exists, otherwise same as "firejail --name=name ..."
              Note that in contrary to other join options there is respective
              profile option.

       --ls=name|pid dir_or_filename
              List  files in sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for
              more details.

       --list List all sandboxes, see MONITORING section for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              7015:netblue:firejail firefox
              7056:netblue:firejail --net=eth0 transmission-gtk
              7064:netblue:firejail --noroot xterm
              $

       --mac=address
              Assign MAC addresses to the last network interface defined by a
              --net option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --mac=00:11:22:33:44:55 firefox

       --machine-id
              Spoof  id  number  in /etc/machine-id file - a new random id is
              generated inside the sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --machine-id

       --memory-deny-write-execute
              Install a seccomp filter to block  attempts  to  create  memory
              mappings  that are both writable and executable, to change map‐
              pings to be executable, or to create executable shared  memory.
              The  filter examines the arguments of mmap, mmap2, mprotect and
              shmat system calls and kills the process if necessary.

              Note: shmat is not implemented as a system call on  some  plat‐
              forms including i386, and it cannot be handled by seccomp-bpf.

       --mtu=number
              Assign  a  MTU value to the last network interface defined by a
              --net option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --mtu=1492

       --name=name
              Set sandbox name. Several options, such as --join  and  --shut‐
              down, can use this name to identify a sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mybrowser firefox

       --net=bridge_interface
              Enable  a  new  network namespace and connect it to this bridge
              interface.  Unless specified with option --ip and  --defaultgw,
              an  IP address and a default gateway will be assigned automati‐
              cally to the sandbox. The IP  address  is  verified  using  ARP
              before assignment. The address configured as default gateway is
              the bridge device IP address. Up to four --net  bridge  devices
              can be defined. Mixing bridge and macvlan devices is allowed.

              Example:
              $ sudo brctl addbr br0
              $ sudo ifconfig br0 10.10.20.1/24
              $ sudo brctl addbr br1
              $ sudo ifconfig br1 10.10.30.1/24
              $ firejail --net=br0 --net=br1

       --net=ethernet_interface
              Enable  a new network namespace and connect it to this ethernet
              interface using the standard Linux macvlan driver. Unless spec‐
              ified  with  option  --ip  and --defaultgw, an IP address and a
              default gateway will be assigned automatically to the  sandbox.
              The  IP  address  is  verified using ARP before assignment. The
              address configured as default gateway is the default gateway of
              the  host.  Up  to  four  --net  devices can be defined. Mixing
              bridge and macvlan devices is allowed.  Note: wlan devices  are
              not supported for this option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=192.168.1.80 --dns=8.8.8.8 firefox

       --net=none
              Enable a new, unconnected network namespace. The only interface
              available in the new namespace  is  a  new  loopback  interface
              (lo).   Use this option to deny network access to programs that
              don't really need network access.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=none vlc

              Note: --net=none can crash the application on  some  platforms.
              In these cases, it can be replaced with --protocol=unix.

       --netns=name
              Run  the  program  in  a  named,  persistent network namespace.
              These can be created and configured using "ip netns".

       --netfilter
              Enable a default client  network  filter  in  the  new  network
              namespace.   New  network  namespaces  are  created using --net
              option. If a new network namespaces is not created, --netfilter
              option does nothing.  The default filter is as follows:

              *filter
              :INPUT DROP [0:0]
              :FORWARD DROP [0:0]
              :OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
              -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
              # allow ping
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type destination-unreachable -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type time-exceeded -j ACCEPT
              -A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT
              # drop STUN (WebRTC) requests
              -A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 3478 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 3479 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 3478 -j DROP
              -A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 3479 -j DROP
              COMMIT

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --netfilter firefox

       --netfilter=filename
              Enable the network filter specified by filename in the new net‐
              work namespace. The filter file format is the format  of  ipta‐
              bles-save and iptable-restore commands.  New network namespaces
              are created using --net option. If a new network namespaces  is
              not created, --netfilter option does nothing.

              The following filters are available in /etc/firejail directory:

              webserver.net  is a webserver filter that allows access only to
              TCP ports 80 and 443.  Example:

              $ firejail --netfilter=/etc/firejail/webserver.net --net=eth0 \
              /etc/init.d/apache2 start

              nolocal.net is a client filter that  disable  access  to  local
              network. Example:

              $ firejail --netfilter=/etc/firejail/nolocal.net \
              --net=eth0 firefox

       --netfilter6=filename
              Enable the IPv6 network filter specified by filename in the new
              network namespace. The filter file  format  is  the  format  of
              ip6tables-save  and  ip6table-restore  commands.   New  network
              namespaces are created using --net option.  If  a  new  network
              namespaces is not created, --netfilter6 option does nothing.

       --netstats
              Monitor  network  namespace  statistics, see MONITORING section
              for more details.

              Example:

              $ firejail --netstats
              PID  User    RX(KB/s) TX(KB/s) Command
              1294 netblue 53.355   1.473    firejail --net=eth0 firefox
              7383 netblue 9.045    0.112    firejail --net=eth0 transmission

       --nice=value
              Set nice value for all processes running  inside  the  sandbox.
              Only root may specify a negative value.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nice=2 firefox

       --no3d Disable 3D hardware acceleration.

              Example:
              $ firejail --no3d firefox

       --noblacklist=dirname_or_filename
              Disable blacklist for this directory or file.

              Example:
              $ firejail
              $ nc dict.org 2628
              bash: /bin/nc: Permission denied
              $ exit

              $ firejail --noblacklist=/bin/nc
              $ nc dict.org 2628
              220 pan.alephnull.com dictd 1.12.1/rf on Linux 3.14-1-amd64

       --nodvd
              Disable DVD and audio CD devices.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nodvd

       --noexec=dirname_or_filename
              Remount directory or file noexec, nodev and nosuid.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noexec=/tmp

              /etc  and /var are noexec by default if the sandbox was started
              as a regular user. If there are more than one  mount  operation
              on  the path of the file or directory, noexec should be applied
              to the last one. Always check if the change took effect  inside
              the sandbox.

       --nogroups
              Disable  supplementary  groups. Without this option, supplemen‐
              tary groups are enabled for the user starting the sandbox.  For
              root user supplementary groups are always disabled.

              Note:  By  default all regular user groups are removed with the
              exception of the  current  user.  This  can  be  changed  using
              --allusers command option.

              Example:
              $ id
              uid=1000(netblue)       gid=1000(netblue)      groups=1000(net‐
              blue),24(cdrom),25(floppy),27(sudo),29(audio)
              $ firejail --nogroups
              Parent pid 8704, child pid 8705
              Child process initialized
              $ id
              uid=1000(netblue) gid=1000(netblue) groups=1000(netblue)
              $

       --noprofile
              Do not use a security profile.

              Example:
              $ firejail
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/default.profile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

              $ firejail --noprofile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

       --noroot
              Install a user namespace with a single user - the current user.
              root  user  does  not  exist  in the new namespace. This option
              requires a Linux kernel version 3.8 or newer. The option is not
              supported  for  --chroot  and  --overlay configurations, or for
              sandboxes started as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noroot
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              $ ping google.com
              ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted
              $

       --nonewprivs
              Sets the NO_NEW_PRIVS prctl.  This ensures that child processes
              cannot  acquire new privileges using execve(2);  in particular,
              this means that calling a suid binary (or one with  file  capa‐
              bilities)  does  not  result  in an increase of privilege. This
              option is enabled by default if seccomp filter is activated.

       --nosound
              Disable sound system.

              Example:
              $ firejail --nosound firefox

       --notv Disable DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) TV devices.

              Example:
              $ firejail --notv vlc

       --novideo
              Disable video devices.

       --nowhitelist=dirname_or_filename
              Disable whitelist for this directory or file.

       --output=logfile
              stdout logging and log rotation. Copy stdout and stderr to log‐
              file, and keep the size of the file under 500KB using log rota‐
              tion. Five files with prefixes .1 to .5 are used in rotation.

              Example:
              $ firejail --output=sandboxlog /bin/bash
              [...]
              $ ls -l sandboxlog*
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 333890 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.1
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.2
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.3
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.4
              -rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun  2 07:48 sandboxlog.5

       --output-stderr=logfile
              Similar to --output, but stderr is also stored.

       --overlay
              Mount a filesystem overlay on top of  the  current  filesystem.
              Unlike the regular filesystem container, the system directories
              are mounted read-write. All filesystem  modifications  go  into
              the  overlay.   The  overlay is stored in $HOME/.firejail/
              directory.

              OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for  this  option
              to  work.   OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel
              version 3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity  sys‐
              tems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay firefox

       --overlay-named=name
              Mount  a  filesystem  overlay on top of the current filesystem.
              Unlike the regular filesystem container, the system directories
              are  mounted  read-write.  All filesystem modifications go into
              the overlay.  The overlay is stored  in  $HOME/.firejail/
              directory.  The  created overlay can be reused between multiple
              sessions.

              OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for  this  option
              to  work.   OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel
              version 3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity  sys‐
              tems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-named=jail1 firefox

       --overlay-tmpfs
              Mount  a  filesystem  overlay on top of the current filesystem.
              All filesystem modifications are discarded when the sandbox  is
              closed.

              OverlayFS  support  is required in Linux kernel for this option
              to work.  OverlayFS was officially introduced in  Linux  kernel
              version  3.18.  This option is not available on Grsecurity sys‐
              tems.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-tmpfs firefox

       --overlay-clean
              Clean all overlays stored in $HOME/.firejail directory.

              Example:
              $ firejail --overlay-clean

       --private
              Mount  new  /root  and  /home/user  directories  in   temporary
              filesystems.  All  modifications are discarded when the sandbox
              is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private firefox

       --private=directory
              Use directory as user home.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private=/home/netblue/firefox-home firefox

       --private-home=file,directory
              Build a new user home in a temporary filesystem, and  copy  the
              files  and directories in the list in the new home. All modifi‐
              cations are discarded when the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-home=.mozilla firefox

       --private-bin=file,file
              Build a new /bin in a temporary filesystem, and copy  the  pro‐
              grams  in the list.  If no listed file is found, /bin directory
              will be empty.  The same directory is  also  bind-mounted  over
              /sbin,  /usr/bin,  /usr/sbin and /usr/local/bin.  All modifica‐
              tions are discarded when the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-bin=bash,sed,ls,cat
              Parent pid 20841, child pid 20842
              Child process initialized
              $ ls /bin
              bash  cat  ls  sed

       --private-lib=file,directory
              This feature is currently under heavy development.  Only  amd64
              platforms are supported at this moment.  The idea is to build a
              new /lib in a temporary filesystem, with only the library files
              necessary to run the application.  It could be as simple as:

              $ firejail --private-lib galculator

              but it gets complicated really fast:

              $   firejail   --private-lib=x86_64-linux-gnu/xed,x86_64-linux-
              gnu/gdk-pixbuf-2.0,libenchant.so.1,librsvg-2.so.2 xed

              The feature is integrated with --private-bin:

              $ firejail --private-lib --private-bin=bash,ls,ps
              $ ls /lib
              ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 libgpg-error.so.0  libprocps.so.6  libsys‐
              temd.so.0
              libc.so.6 liblz4.so.1 libpthread.so.0 libtinfo.so.5
              libdl.so.2 liblzma.so.5 librt.so.1 x86_64-linux-gnu
              libgcrypt.so.20 libpcre.so.3 libselinux.so.1
              $ ps
               PID TTY          TIME CMD
                  1 pts/0    00:00:00 firejail
                 45 pts/0    00:00:00 bash
                 48 pts/0    00:00:00 ps
              $

       --private-dev
              Create  a  new /dev directory. Only dri, null, full, zero, tty,
              pts, ptmx, random, snd, urandom, video, log and shm devices are
              available.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-dev
              Parent pid 9887, child pid 9888
              Child process initialized
              $ ls /dev
              dri  full  log  null  ptmx  pts  random  shm  snd  tty  urandom
              zero
              $

       --private-etc=file,directory
              Build a new /etc in a temporary filesystem, and copy the  files
              and  directories in the list.  If no listed file is found, /etc
              directory will be empty.  All modifications are discarded  when
              the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-etc=group,hostname,localtime, \
              nsswitch.conf,passwd,resolv.conf

       --private-opt=file,directory
              Build  a new /opt in a temporary filesystem, and copy the files
              and directories in the list.  If no listed file is found,  /opt
              directory  will be empty.  All modifications are discarded when
              the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-opt=firefox /opt/firefox/firefox

       --private-srv=file,directory
              Build a new /srv in a temporary filesystem, and copy the  files
              and  directories in the list.  If no listed file is found, /srv
              directory will be empty.  All modifications are discarded  when
              the sandbox is closed.

              Example:
              # firejail --private-srv=www /etc/init.d/apache2 start

       --private-tmp
              Mount  an  empty  temporary filesystem on top of /tmp directory
              whitelisting X11 and PulseAudio sockets.

              Example:
              $ firejail --private-tmp
              $ ls -al /tmp
              drwxrwxrwt  4 nobody nogroup   80 Apr 30 11:46 .
              drwxr-xr-x 30 nobody nogroup 4096 Apr 26 22:18 ..
              drwx------  2 nobody  nogroup  4096  Apr  30  10:52  pulse-PKd‐
              htXMmr18n
              drwxrwxrwt  2 nobody nogroup 4096 Apr 30 10:52 .X11-unix

       --profile=filename
              Load  a custom security profile from filename. For filename use
              an absolute path or a path relative to the current  path.   For
              more information, see SECURITY PROFILES section below.

              Example:
              $ firejail --profile=myprofile

       --profile.print=name|pid
              Print  the  name of the profile file for the sandbox identified
              by name or or PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --profile.print=browser
              /etc/firejail/firefox.profile

       --profile-path=directory
              Use this directory to look for profile files. Use  an  absolute
              path  or  a  path  in the home directory starting with ~/.  For
              more information, see SECURITY PROFILES section below and RELO‐
              CATING PROFILE FILES in man 5 firejail-profile.

              Example:
              $ firejail --profile-path=~/myprofiles
              $ firejail --profile-path=/home/netblue/myprofiles

       --protocol=protocol,protocol,protocol
              Enable  protocol  filter.  The  filter  is based on seccomp and
              checks the first argument to socket  system  call.   Recognized
              values:  unix,  inet, inet6, netlink and packet. This option is
              not supported for i386 architecture.

              Example:
              $ firejail --protocol=unix,inet,inet6 firefox

       --protocol.print=name|pid
              Print the protocol filter for the sandbox identified by name or
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mybrowser firefox &
              $ firejail --protocol.print=mybrowser
              unix,inet,inet6,netlink

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --protocol.print=3272
              unix,inet,inet6,netlink

       --put=name|pid src-filename dest-filename
              Put  a file in sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for
              more details.

       --quiet
              Turn off Firejail's output.

       --read-only=dirname_or_filename
              Set directory or file read-only.

              Example:
              $ firejail --read-only=~/.mozilla firefox

              A short note about mixing --whitelist and --read-only  options.
              Whitelisted directories should be made read-only independently.
              Making  a  parent  directory  read-only,  will  not  make   the
              whitelist read-only. Example:

              $ firejail --whitelist=~/work --read-only=~ --read-only=~/work

       --read-write=dirname_or_filename
              Set  directory  or  file  read-write. Only files or directories
              belonging to the current user are allowed for  this  operation.
              Example:

              $ mkdir ~/test
              $ touch ~/test/a
              $ firejail --read-only=~/test --read-write=~/test/a

       --rlimit-fsize=number
              Set the maximum file size that can be created by a process.

       --rlimit-nofile=number
              Set  the  maximum  number  of  files  that  can  be opened by a
              process.

       --rlimit-nproc=number
              Set the maximum number of processes that can be created for the
              real user ID of the calling process.

       --rlimit-sigpending=number
              Set the maximum number of pending signals for a process.

       --rmenv=name
              Remove environment variable in the new sandbox.

              Example:
              $ firejail --rmenv=DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS

       --scan ARP-scan  all  the  networks  from  inside a network namespace.
              This makes it possible to detect macvlan kernel device  drivers
              running on the current host.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=eth0 --scan

       --seccomp
              Enable seccomp filter and blacklist the syscalls in the default
              list  (@default).  The  default  list  is  as  follows:  mount,
              umount2,   ptrace,  kexec_load,  kexec_file_load,  name_to_han‐
              dle_at,    open_by_handle_at,    create_module,    init_module,
              finit_module,  delete_module, iopl, ioperm, ioprio_set, swapon,
              swapoff,    syslog,    process_vm_readv,     process_vm_writev,
              sysfs,_sysctl,    adjtimex,    clock_adjtime,   lookup_dcookie,
              perf_event_open,  fanotify_init,  kcmp,  add_key,  request_key,
              keyctl,   uselib,   acct,   modify_ldt,  pivot_root,  io_setup,
              io_destroy,      io_getevents,      io_submit,       io_cancel,
              remap_file_pages,    mbind,    set_mempolicy,    migrate_pages,
              move_pages,  vmsplice,  chroot,  tuxcall,  reboot,  mfsservctl,
              get_kernel_syms,      bpf,      clock_settime,     personality,
              process_vm_writev, query_module, settimeofday,  stime,  umount,
              userfaultfd, ustat, vm86, vm86old, afs_syscall, bdflush, break,
              ftime, getpmsg,  gtty,  lock,  mpx,  pciconfig_iobase,  pcicon‐
              fig_read,   pciconfig_write,   prof,   profil,  putpmsg,  rtas,
              s390_runtime_instr, s390_mmio_read, s390_mmio_write,  security,
              setdomainname,   sethostname,  sgetmask,  ssetmask,  stty, sub‐
              page_prot, switch_endian, ulimit, vhangup and vserver.

              To help creating useful seccomp filters more easily,  the  fol‐
              lowing  system call groups are defined: @clock, @cpu-emulation,
              @debug, @default, @default-nodebuggers, @default-keep, @module,
              @obsolete, @privileged, @raw-io, @reboot, @resources and @swap.
              In addtion, a system  call  can  be  specified  by  its  number
              instead  of  name  with  prefix $, so for example $165 would be
              equal to mount on i386.

              System architecture is strictly imposed  only  if  flag  --sec‐
              comp.block-secondary is used. The filter is applied at run time
              only if the correct architecture was detected. For the case  of
              I386 and AMD64 both 32-bit and 64-bit filters are installed.

              Firejail  will print seccomp violations to the audit log if the
              kernel was compiled with audit support (CONFIG_AUDIT flag).

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp

       --seccomp=syscall,@group
              Enable seccomp filter, blacklist the  default  list  (@default)
              and the syscalls or syscall groups specified by the command.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp=utime,utimensat,utimes firefox
              $ firejail --seccomp=@clock,mkdir,unlinkat transmission-gtk

              Instead of dropping the syscall, a specific error number can be
              returned using syscall:errorno syntax.

              Example: $ firejail --seccomp=unlinkat:ENOENT,utimensat,utimes
              Parent pid 10662, child pid 10663
              Child process initialized
              $ touch testfile
              $ rm testfile
              rm: cannot remove `testfile': Operation not permitted

              If the blocked system calls  would  also  block  Firejail  from
              operating, they are handled by adding a preloaded library which
              performs seccomp system calls later.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noprofile --shell=none --seccomp=execve bash
              Parent pid 32751, child pid 32752
              Post-exec seccomp protector enabled
              list in: execve, check  list:  @default-keep  prelist:  (null),
              postlist: execve
              Child process initialized in 46.44 ms
              $ ls
              Bad system call

       --seccomp.block_secondary
              Enable  seccomp  filter and filter system call architectures so
              that only the native architecture is allowed. For  example,  on
              amd64,  i386 and x32 system calls are blocked as well as chang‐
              ing the execution domain with personality(2) system call.

       --seccomp.drop=syscall,@group
              Enable seccomp  filter,  and  blacklist  the  syscalls  or  the
              syscall groups specified by the command.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp.drop=utime,utimensat,utimes,@clock

              Instead of dropping the syscall, a specific error number can be
              returned using syscall:errorno syntax.

              Example:
              $ firejail --seccomp.drop=unlinkat:ENOENT,utimensat,utimes
              Parent pid 10662, child pid 10663
              Child process initialized
              $ touch testfile
              $ rm testfile
              rm: cannot remove `testfile': Operation not permitted

       --seccomp.keep=syscall,syscall,syscall
              Enable seccomp filter, and whitelist the syscalls specified  by
              the  command.  The  system  calls  needed  by  Firejail  (group
              @default-keep: prctl, execve)  are  handled  with  the  preload
              library.

              Example:
              $ firejail --shell=none --seccomp.keep=poll,select,[...] trans‐
              mission-gtk

       --seccomp.print=name|PID
              Print the seccomp filter for the sandbox identified by name  or
              PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=browser firefox &
              $ firejail --seccomp.print=browser
              SECCOMP Filter:
                VALIDATE_ARCHITECTURE
                EXAMINE_SYSCALL
                BLACKLIST 165 mount
                BLACKLIST 166 umount2
                BLACKLIST 101 ptrace
                BLACKLIST 246 kexec_load
                BLACKLIST 304 open_by_handle_at
                BLACKLIST 175 init_module
                BLACKLIST 176 delete_module
                BLACKLIST 172 iopl
                BLACKLIST 173 ioperm
                BLACKLIST 167 swapon
                BLACKLIST 168 swapoff
                BLACKLIST 103 syslog
                BLACKLIST 310 process_vm_readv
                BLACKLIST 311 process_vm_writev
                BLACKLIST 133 mknod
                BLACKLIST 139 sysfs
                BLACKLIST 156 _sysctl
                BLACKLIST 159 adjtimex
                BLACKLIST 305 clock_adjtime
                BLACKLIST 212 lookup_dcookie
                BLACKLIST 298 perf_event_open
                BLACKLIST 300 fanotify_init
                RETURN_ALLOW
              $

       --shell=none
              Run the program directly, without a user shell.

              Example:
              $ firejail --shell=none script.sh

       --shell=program
              Set  default  user shell. Use this shell to run the application
              using -c shell option.  For example "firejail --shell=/bin/dash
              firefox"  will start Mozilla Firefox as "/bin/dash -c firefox".
              By default Bash shell (/bin/bash)  is  used.  Options  such  as
              --zsh and --csh can also set the default shell.

              Example: $firejail --shell=/bin/dash script.sh

       --shutdown=name|PID
              Shutdown the sandbox identified by name or PID.

              Example:
              $ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
              $ firejail --shutdown=mygame

              Example:
              $ firejail --list
              3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
              $ firejail --shutdown=3272

       --tmpfs=dirname
              Mount  a  tmpfs filesystem on directory dirname. This option is
              available only when running the sandbox as root.

              Example:
              # firejail --tmpfs=/var

       --top  Monitor the most CPU-intensive sandboxes, see  MONITORING  sec‐
              tion for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --top

       --trace
              Trace open, access and connect system calls.

              Example:
              $ firejail --trace wget -q www.debian.org
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/wget.profile
              3:wget:fopen64 /etc/wgetrc:0x5c8e8ce6c0
              3:wget:fopen /etc/hosts:0x5c8e8cfb70
              3:wget:socket AF_INET SOCK_DGRAM IPPROTO_IP:3
              3:wget:connect 3 8.8.8.8 port 53:0
              3:wget:socket AF_INET SOCK_STREAM IPPROTO_IP:3
              3:wget:connect 3 130.89.148.14 port 80:0
              3:wget:fopen64 index.html:0x5c8e8d1a60

              parent is shutting down, bye...

       --tracelog
              This option enables auditing blacklisted files and directories.
              A message is sent to syslog in case the file or  the  directory
              is accessed.

              Example:
              $ firejail --tracelog firefox

              Sample messages:
              $ sudo tail -f /var/log/syslog
              [...]
              Dec   3  11:43:25  debian  firejail[70]:  blacklist violation -
              sandbox 26370, exe firefox, syscall open64, path /etc/shadow
              Dec  3 11:46:17  debian  firejail[70]:  blacklist  violation  -
              sandbox 26370, exe firefox, syscall opendir, path /boot
              [...]

       --tree Print a tree of all sandboxed processes, see MONITORING section
              for more details.

              Example:
              $ firejail --tree
              11903:netblue:firejail iceweasel
                11904:netblue:iceweasel
                  11957:netblue:/usr/lib/iceweasel/plugin-container
              11969:netblue:firejail --net=eth0 transmission-gtk
                11970:netblue:transmission-gtk

       --version
              Print program version and exit.

              Example:
              $ firejail --version
              firejail version 0.9.27

       --veth-name=name
              Use this name for the interface connected  to  the  bridge  for
              --net=bridge_interface commands, instead of the default one.

              Example:
              $ firejail --net=br0 --veth-name=if0

       --whitelist=dirname_or_filename
              Whitelist directory or file. A temporary file system is mounted
              on the top directory, and  the  whitelisted  files  are  mount-
              binded  inside.  Modifications to whitelisted files are persis‐
              tent, everything else is discarded when the sandbox is  closed.
              The top directory could be user home, /dev, /media, /mnt, /opt,
              /srv, /var, and /tmp.

              Symbolic link handling: with the exception of user  home,  both
              the link and the real file should be in the same top directory.
              For user home, both the link and the real file should be  owned
              by the user.

              Example:
              $ firejail --noprofile --whitelist=~/.mozilla
              $ firejail --whitelist=/tmp/.X11-unix --whitelist=/dev/null
              $ firejail "--whitelist=/home/username/My Virtual Machines"

       --writable-etc
              Mount /etc directory read-write.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-etc

       --writable-var
              Mount /var directory read-write.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-var

       --writable-var-log
              Use  the  real  /var/log  directory, not a clone. By default, a
              tmpfs is mounted on top of /var/log directory, and  a  skeleton
              filesystem is created based on the original /var/log.

              Example:
              $ sudo firejail --writable-var-log

       --x11  Sandbox  the application using Xpra, Xephyr, Xvfb or Xorg secu‐
              rity extension.  The sandbox will prevents screenshot and  key‐
              logger  applications  started inside the sandbox from accessing
              clients running outside the sandbox.  Firejail will  try  first
              Xpra,  and  if Xpra is not installed on the system, it will try
              to find Xephyr.  If all fails, Firejail will not attempt to use
              Xvfb or X11 security extension.

              Xpra,  Xephyr  and Xvfb modes require a network namespace to be
              instantiated in order to disable X11 abstract Unix  socket.  If
              this  is not possible, the user can disable the abstract socket
              by adding "-nolisten local" on  Xorg  command  line  at  system
              level.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11 --net=eth0 firefox

       --x11=none
              Blacklist /tmp/.X11-unix directory, ${HOME}/.Xauthority and the
              file specified in ${XAUTHORITY} environment  variable.   Remove
              DISPLAY  and XAUTHORITY environment variables.  Stop with error
              message if X11 abstract socket will be accessible in jail.

       --x11=xephyr
              Start Xephyr and attach the sandbox to this server.  Xephyr  is
              a  display server implementing the X11 display server protocol.
              A network namespace needs to be instantiated in order  to  deny
              access to X11 abstract Unix domain socket.

              Xephyr  runs  in  a window just like any other X11 application.
              The default window size is 800x600.  This can  be  modified  in
              /etc/firejail/firejail.config file.

              The recommended way to use this feature is to run a window man‐
              ager inside the sandbox.  A security  profile  for  OpenBox  is
              provided.

              Xephyr  is developed by Xorg project. On Debian platforms it is
              installed with the command sudo apt-get install xserver-xephyr.
              This feature is not available when running as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11=xephyr --net=eth0 openbox

       --x11=xorg
              Sandbox the application using the untrusted mode implemented by
              X11 security extension.  The extension  is  available  in  Xorg
              package  and it is installed by default on most Linux distribu‐
              tions. It provides support for a simple trusted/untrusted  con‐
              nection model. Untrusted clients are restricted in certain ways
              to prevent them from reading window contents of other  clients,
              stealing input events, etc.

              The  untrusted  mode  has several limitations. A lot of regular
              programs  assume they are a trusted X11 clients and will  crash
              or  lock  up  when  run in untrusted mode. Chromium browser and
              xterm are two examples.  Firefox and transmission-gtk  seem  to
              be  working fine.  A network namespace is not required for this
              option.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11=xorg firefox

       --x11=xpra
              Start Xpra (http://xpra.org) and attach  the  sandbox  to  this
              server.   Xpra is a persistent remote display server and client
              for forwarding X11 applications and desktop screens.  A network
              namespace  needs  to be instantiated in order to deny access to
              X11 abstract Unix domain socket.

              On Debian platforms Xpra is installed  with  the  command  sudo
              apt-get  install xpra.  This feature is not available when run‐
              ning as root.

              Example:
              $ firejail --x11=xpra --net=eth0 firefox

       --x11=xvfb
              Start Xvfb X11 server and attach the sandbox  to  this  server.
              Xvfb,  short  for X virtual framebuffer, performs all graphical
              operations in memory without showing any screen output. Xvfb is
              mainly  used for remote access and software testing on headless
              servers.

              On Debian platforms Xvfb is installed  with  the  command  sudo
              apt-get  install xvfb.  This feature is not available when run‐
              ning as root.

              Example: remote VNC access

              On the server we start a sandbox using Xvfb and openbox  window
              manager. The default size of Xvfb screen is 800x600 - it can be
              changed in  /etc/firejail/firejail.config  (xvfb-screen).  Some
              sort  of networking (--net) is required in order to isolate the
              abstract sockets used by other X servers.

              $ firejail --net=none --x11=xvfb openbox

              *** Attaching to Xvfb display 792 ***

              Reading profile /etc/firejail/openbox.profile
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/disable-common.inc
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/disable-common.local
              Parent pid 5400, child pid 5401

              On the server we also start a VNC server and attach it  to  the
              display handled by our Xvfb server (792).

              $ x11vnc -display :792

              On  the client machine we start a VNC viewer and use it to con‐
              nect to our server:

              $ vncviewer

       --xephyr-screen=WIDTHxHEIGHT
              Set screen size for --x11=xephyr. The  setting  will  overwrite
              the  default  set in /etc/firejail/firejail.config for the cur‐
              rent sandbox. Run xrandr to get a list of supported resolutions
              on your computer.

              Example:
              $   firejail  --net=eth0  --x11=xephyr  --xephyr-screen=640x480
              firefox

       --zsh  Use /usr/bin/zsh as default user shell.

              Example:
              $ firejail --zsh

DESKTOP INTEGRATION
       A symbolic link to /usr/bin/firejail under the name of a program, will
       start  the  program  in Firejail sandbox.  The symbolic link should be
       placed in the first $PATH position. On most systems, a good  place  is
       /usr/local/bin directory. Example:

              Make a firefox symlink to /usr/bin/firejail:

              $ ln -s /usr/bin/firejail /usr/local/bin/firefox

              Verify $PATH

              $ which -a firefox
              /usr/local/bin/firefox
              /usr/bin/firefox

              Starting  firefox  in this moment, automatically invokes “fire‐
              jail firefox”.

       This works for clicking on desktop environment icons, menus  etc.  Use
       "firejail --tree" to verify the program is sandboxed.

              $ firejail --tree
              1189:netblue:firejail firefox
                1190:netblue:firejail firefox
                  1220:netblue:/bin/sh -c "/usr/lib/firefox/firefox"
                    1221:netblue:/usr/lib/firefox/firefox

       We  provide a tool that automates all this integration, please see man
       1 firecfg for more details.

APPARMOR
       AppArmor support is disabled by default at compile time. Use --enable-
       apparmor configuration option to enable it:

              $ ./configure --prefix=/usr --enable-apparmor

       During  software  install,  a generic AppArmor profile file, firejail-
       default, is placed in /etc/apparmor.d directory. The profile needs  to
       be loaded into the kernel by running the following command as root:

              # aa-enforce firejail-default

       The  installed  profile tries to replicate some advanced security fea‐
       tures inspired by kernel-based Grsecurity:

              - Prevent information leakage in /proc  and  /sys  directories.
              The  resulting filesystem is barely enough for running commands
              such as "top" and "ps aux".

              - Allow running programs only  from  well-known  system  paths,
              such as /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin etc. Running programs and scripts
              from user home or other directories writable by the user is not
              allowed.

              -  Disable D-Bus. D-Bus has long been a huge security hole, and
              most programs don't use it anyway.  You should have no problems
              running Chromium or Firefox.

       To  enable  AppArmor confinement on top of your current Firejail secu‐
       rity features, pass --apparmor flag to Firejail command line. You  can
       also include apparmor command in a Firejail profile file. Example:

              $ firejail --apparmor firefox

FILE TRANSFER
       These  features  allow the user to inspect the filesystem container of
       an existing sandbox and transfer files from the container to the  host
       filesystem.

       --get=name|pid filename
              Retrieve  the  container  file  and store it on the host in the
              current working directory.  The container is specified by  name
              or PID.

       --ls=name|pid dir_or_filename
              List  container  files.  The  container is specified by name or
              PID.

       --put=name|pid src-filename dest-filename
              Put src-filename in sandbox container.  The container is speci‐
              fied by name or PID.

       Examples:

              $ firejail --name=mybrowser --private firefox

              $ firejail --ls=mybrowser ~/Downloads
              drwxr-xr-x netblue  netblue         4096 .
              drwxr-xr-x netblue  netblue         4096 ..
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue         7847 x11-x305.png
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue         6800 x11-x642.png
              -rw-r--r-- netblue  netblue        34139 xpra-clipboard.png

              $ firejail --get=mybrowser ~/Downloads/xpra-clipboard.png

              $ firejail --put=mybrowser xpra-clipboard.png ~/Downloads/xpra-
              clipboard.png

TRAFFIC SHAPING
       Network bandwidth is an expensive resource shared among all  sandboxes
       running on a system.  Traffic shaping allows the user to increase net‐
       work performance by controlling the amount of data that flows into and
       out of the sandboxes.

       Firejail  implements a simple rate-limiting shaper based on Linux com‐
       mand tc.  The shaper works at sandbox level, and can be used only  for
       sandboxes configured with new network namespaces.

       Set rate-limits:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid set network download upload

       Clear rate-limits:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid clear network

       Status:

            $ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid status

       where:
            name - sandbox name
            pid - sandbox pid
            network - network interface as used by --net option
            download - download speed in KB/s (kilobyte per second)
            upload - upload speed in KB/s (kilobyte per second)

       Example:
            $ firejail --name=mybrowser --net=eth0 firefox &
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser set eth0 80 20
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser status
            $ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser clear eth0

AUDIT
       Audit  feature allows the user to point out gaps in security profiles.
       The implementation replaces the program to be sandboxed  with  a  test
       program.  By default, we use faudit program distributed with Firejail.
       A custom test program can also be supplied by the user. Examples:

       Running the default audit program:
            $ firejail --audit transmission-gtk

       Running a custom audit program:
            $ firejail --audit=~/sandbox-test transmission-gtk

       In the examples above, the sandbox configures transmission-gtk profile
       and  starts the test program. The real program, transmission-gtk, will
       not be started.

       Limitations: audit feature is not implemented for --x11 commands.

MONITORING
       Option --list prints a list of all  sandboxes.  The  format  for  each
       process entry is as follows:

            PID:USER:Command

       Option --tree prints the tree of processes running in the sandbox. The
       format for each process entry is as follows:

            PID:USER:Command

       Option --top is similar to the UNIX top command,  however  it  applies
       only to sandboxes.

       Option  --netstats  prints  network  statistics  for  active sandboxes
       installing new network namespaces.

       Listed below are the available fields (columns) in alphabetical  order
       for --top and --netstat options:

       Command
              Command used to start the sandbox.

       CPU%   CPU  usage, the sandbox share of the elapsed CPU time since the
              last screen update

       PID    Unique process ID for the task controlling the sandbox.

       Prcs   Number of processes running in sandbox, including the  control‐
              ling process.

       RES    Resident  Memory  Size (KiB), sandbox non-swapped physical mem‐
              ory.  It is a sum of the RES values for all  processes  running
              in the sandbox.

       RX(KB/s)
              Network receive speed.

       SHR    Shared  Memory Size (KiB), it reflects memory shared with other
              processes. It is a sum of the SHR values for all processes run‐
              ning in the sandbox, including the controlling process.

       TX(KB/s)
              Network transmit speed.

       Uptime Sandbox running time in hours:minutes:seconds format.

       User   The owner of the sandbox.

SECURITY PROFILES
       Several  command  line options can be passed to the program using pro‐
       file files. Firejail chooses the profile file as follows:

       1. If a profile file is provided by the user  with  --profile  option,
       the profile file is loaded.  Example:

              $ firejail --profile=/home/netblue/icecat.profile icecat
              Reading profile /home/netblue/icecat.profile
              [...]

       2.  If a profile file with the same name as the application is present
       in ~/.config/firejail directory or in /etc/firejail,  the  profile  is
       loaded.  ~/.config/firejail takes precedence over /etc/firejail. Exam‐
       ple:

              $ firejail icecat
              Command name #icecat#
              Found icecat profile in  /home/netblue/.config/firejail  direc‐
              tory
              Reading profile /home/netblue/.config/firejail/icecat.profile
              [...]

       3.  Use  default.profile  file  if the sandbox is started by a regular
       user, or server.profile file if the sandbox is started by root.  Fire‐
       jail  looks  for these files in ~/.config/firejail directory, followed
       by /etc/firejail directory.  To disable default profile  loading,  use
       --noprofile command option. Example:

              $ firejail
              Reading profile /etc/firejail/default.profile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

              $ firejail --noprofile
              Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
              Child process initialized
              [...]

       See man 5 firejail-profile for profile file syntax information.

RESTRICTED SHELL
       To configure a restricted shell, replace /bin/bash with /usr/bin/fire‐
       jail in /etc/passwd file for each user that needs  to  be  restricted.
       Alternatively, you can specify /usr/bin/firejail  in adduser command:

       adduser --shell /usr/bin/firejail username

       Additional  arguments  passed  to  firejail  executable upon login are
       declared in /etc/firejail/login.users file.

EXAMPLES
       firejail
              Sandbox a regular /bin/bash session.

       firejail firefox
              Start Mozilla Firefox.

       firejail --debug firefox
              Debug Firefox sandbox.

       firejail --private firefox
              Start Firefox with a new, empty home directory.

       firejail --net=none vlc
              Start VLC in an unconnected network namespace.

       firejail --net=eth0 firefox
              Start Firefox in a new network  namespace.  An  IP  address  is
              assigned automatically.

       firejail --net=br0 --ip=10.10.20.5 --net=br1 --net=br2
              Start  a  /bin/bash session in a new network namespace and con‐
              nect it to br0, br1, and br2 host bridge devices. IP  addresses
              are  assigned automatically for the interfaces connected to br1
              and b2

       firejail --list
              List all sandboxed processes.

LICENSE
       This program is free software; you can redistribute it  and/or  modify
       it  under  the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
       the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or  (at
       your option) any later version.

       Homepage: https://firejail.wordpress.com

SEE ALSO
       firemon(1), firecfg(1), firejail-profile(5), firejail-login(5)

0.9.50                             Sep 2017                       FIREJAIL(1)

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28 thoughts on “man firejail

  1. Chiraag

    I’m having some difficulty in getting mpd to background properly inside firejail. Using “mpd; sleep inf;” worked before, but it’s now responding with “mpd; sleep inf;: command not found”. What is the “official” way to get this working again? Thanks!

    Like

    Reply
  2. GNUser

    nosound option is breaking profiles.
    I tried it in icedove, piding, firefox, and it breaks all of them. if i try to use a profile that has that option it just gives an error in that line. If I do it like “firejail –nosound firefox” however it works flawlessly. I am using 0.9.38

    Any idea?

    Like

    Reply
      1. GNUser

        I expected it to just prevent that specific application from using sound. It is very “anti-feature” this way, since to prevent one application from being exploited and used to spy, we lose sound in all the other apps. Any workaround?

        Like

  3. procoolheat

    When I installed this for use with Chrome it created a profile somewhere for Chrome so it starts with a loaded Chrome cache and some features enabled on Chrome extensions. So I clear the cache and change the extension settings every time I use it firejail google-chrome is how I start it. I’ve even removed it and reinstalled it but the profile is always the same. This is the latest version also. How do I go about deleting this? It’s acting like its in private mode which I thought was deprecated, Help!

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    Reply
    1. netblue30 Post author

      google-chrome configuration is persistent, and is stored in ~/.config/google-chrome directory. So, if you add a bookmark, next time you start chrome, your bookmark should be there. You can delete the configuration before starting chrome (rm -fr ~/.config/google-chrome). Your Download directory is also persistent.

      If you really want to start every time with a default chrome config, you should run “firejail –private google-chrome”.

      Liked by 1 person

      Reply
  4. Martin

    [quote]
    This works for clicking on desktop environment icons, menus etc. Use
    “firejail –tree” to verify the program is sandboxed.
    [/quote]

    Sadly it’s not working for most applications in Gnome3 in Debian Stretch. Probably because in the *.desktop files there is the full path written.
    Do you know a workaround or you suggest to file a bugreport?

    Like

    Reply
  5. kdemeoz

    Hi. Many thanks for FireJail – it’s an amazing achievement.

    Is there a way for FireJail to sandbox internet-facing programs, whose user-data & config files are NOT stored as conventional in /home, but instead are in separate partition /DATA [albeit symlinked back to /home] ? So far all my tests with combinations of –blacklist & –noblacklist in their launchers [for eg, Thunderbird & Firefox] have failed [& –whitelist can’t be used at all if i understand correctly, given their active directories are not in /home], in that either the programs can’t launch at all [because can’t access their config & data], or they launch but ALL other directories & files in /DATA are exposed to internet. Please?

    Like

    Reply
      1. kdemeoz

        That’s the unfortunate conclusion i’d come to, but given i am still not very skilled with FJ, i felt it best to ask you. Thank you.

        Like

  6. Pingback: Sandbox your applications with Firejail – Own your bits

  7. Matthew

    Trying to use –private-home with Google Chrome default profile. I am trying to preserve the add-ons and plug-ins from my default Chrome profile. I’ve tried many iterations, including [firejail –private-home=~/.google-chrome/Default google-chrome-stable]

    But Chrome just fails to load when I double-click on it in Firetools.

    I have tried using many directory path options, but to no avail. Someone please help.

    Like

    Reply
    1. netblue30 Post author

      Use –private only if you need a browser reseted to factory defaults, without any plugins and addons.

      By default Firejail will allow you to use all Chrome addons and plugins. The only directories exposed in your home are Downloads and Chrome configuration files.

      I would say just start it as “firejail chrome” and you should be ok. We do this for all browsers.

      Like

      Reply
  8. Matthew

    netblue,

    Thx for the info. Much appreciated. As I have been looking into optimizing the security features of Firejail and found out that –seccomp, –overlay and –overlay-tmpfs do not work with Chrome, I have managed to come up with the following (not sure if I’ve missed anything):

    firejail –caps.drop=all –noroot –allow-private-blacklist –blacklist=/Home/ –read-only=~ google-chrome-stable

    Chrome loads no problem and at least I’ve added some additional security features to further tighten the security of the sandbox.

    I’m currently running Fedora v26 and as it relates to all the command-line parameters that add additional measures of security, It has taken a while to figure out what works with Chrome and what doesn’t.

    That being said, and as others have mentioned previously, thank you for all your hard work (and anyone else who worked on Firejail/Firetools).

    Cheers.

    Like

    Reply
  9. Matthew

    Oops. I apologize for not mentioning this in my response above. My main purpose for implementing Firejail / Firetools is solely to improve upon the overall security of internet browsing sessions. I’m not testing software or writing code. This is just to help prevent virus / malware injection. Thanks again!

    Like

    Reply
    1. netblue30 Post author

      Question: why don’t you use the default profile for Chrome distributed by firejail?

      You’ll find it in /etc/firejail/google-*.,profile. We have profiles for all Chrome variants, including Chromium. All of them are basically the same, with very small differences. Some of features such as seccomp won’t work for Chrome browser because Chrom starts a second sandbox inside firejail sandbox.

      Like

      Reply
  10. Matthew

    Indeed sir.

    I found the /etc/firejail/google*.profile files and performed the steps (as you outlined in the profiles section here on the site) to save a new google-chrome-stable profile in my [/home/.config/firejail] directory and add the nonewprivs and noroot parameters. I also rem’ed out the caps.keep sys_chroot, sys_admin line and added caps.drop all. Now all I have to do is ‘firejail google-chrome-stable.’ I (again) apologize as I don’t really know if the chroot and admin capabilities are needed in Chrome for pure internet browsing. I conducted some on-line research on those capabilities, but couldn’t come up with anything definitive. As you can see, my working knowledge of Linux is not yet up to snuff.

    NetBlue, again my sincere thanks for an awesome program.

    Like

    Reply
  11. Pingback: Sandbox your applications with Firejail – Linux Now

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